문형과 문법 (
Patterns and Grammar Notes
첫 + N.
=> "first," "beginning"
첫-, as a prefix or a modifier meaning "first" or "beginning," is useful, as shown in these examples:
첫 번째: 유리가 첫 번째예요.
=> Youlee is in first place.
첫날: 학교에 가는 첫날에 늦었어요.
=> On the first day of school, I was late.
첫눈: 첫눈이 일찍 내리면 좋겠다.
=> I wish that the first snow would come early.
첫사랑: 톰이 나의 첫 사랑이었다.
=> Tom was my first love.
첫째: 첫째, 책을 많이 보세요.
=> First, please read many books.
||A.V. + 고 나서
=> "after doing . . . ," "having done . . ."
This colloquial connective indicates the completion of an action or event that is followed by another action or event. Its meaning is close to -ㄴ/은 후에.
- 저녁을 먹고 나서 신문을 읽어요.
=> After eating dinner, I read newspapers.
- 읽고 나서 숙제를 해요.
=> After reading, I do my homework.
- 숙제를 다 하고 나서 친구에게 전화를 걸어요.
=> After doing all the homework, I call my friend on the phone.
||a. V. + 거나
||=> "either (do this) . . . or (do that) . . ."
||b. N. + (이)나
=> "either (this) . . . or (that) . . ."
-거나 indicates two or more events or actions. -(이)나 indicates two or more alternative items.
- 열두 시에 학생들이 밥을 먹거나 친구들과 이야기를 하고 있었다.
=> At noon, students were either eating or talking with friends.
- 주말에는 친구를 만나거나 영화를 볼 거예요.
=> I'll either get together with my friend or go to the movies this weekend.
- 머리가 아프거나 열이 날 때 이 약을 드세요.
=> Take this medicine when you have either a headache or a temperature.
- 가라테나 태권도나 합기도를 배우고 싶어요.
=> I want to learn karate or tae kwon do or hapkido.
- 집이나 사무실로 연락 주세요.
=> Please get in touch with me at home or at my office.
- 방학 동안 한국이나 일본에 다녀오려고 해.
=> During the vacation, I plan to visit Korea or Japan.
|A.V. + ㄹ/을래(요)?
=> "Will you . . . ?," "Are you . . . ?"
|A.V. + ㄹ/을래(요).
=> "I will . . ."
This ending is used in casual and intimate conversation. It is a question when spoken with a rising tone and a statement when spoken with a level tone.
- 내일 나하고 같이 나가 주지 않을래?
=> Won't you go out with me tomorrow?
- 산에 같이 올라 갈래요?
=> Will you climb the mountain with me?
- 지금 밥 먹을래?
=> Are you going to eat now?
- 안 먹을래.
=> I'm not going to eat.
||V. + (어/아)도 돼요?
=> "Is it all right if/to . . . ?," "Is it okay if/to . . . ?"
This construction asks for permission in an informal and casual way.
- 한국말로 물어도 돼요?
=> May I ask you in Korean?
네, 물어 보세요.
=> Yes, go ahead.
- 지금 집에 가도 돼요?
=> May I go home now?
=> Yes, you may.
아니오, 가면 안 돼요.
=> No, you may not.
- 숙제를 내일까지 내도 돼요?
=> Is it okay to turn in my homework tomorrow?
네, 괜찮아요./네, 좋아요.
=> Yes, it's okay.
- 보고서를 연필로 써도 돼요?
=> May I write my report with a pencil?
연필로 쓰면 안 돼요.
=> You may not write with a pencil.
펜으로 써야 돼요.
=> You have to write in ink.
Notice the differences in the positive and negative answers:
- -(어/아)도 돼요?
=> "Is it all right to . . . ?"
- 네, . . . -(어/아)도 돼요.
=> "Yes, it's all right . . ."
- 네, -(어/아)도 괜찮아요/좋아요.
=> "Yes, it is fine."
- 아니오, . . . -(으)면 안 돼요.
=> "No, (one) must not . . . ," "it should not . . . ,"
|| V. + ㄴ/은/는/ㄹ/을 것 같다
=> "it seems/appears . . .," "it is/looks as though . . ."
This sentence ending expresses the speaker's opinion and often translates into "I think .
. ." in English.
- 내 눈으로 보는 것 같았다.
=> It was like seeing it with my own eyes.
- 내가 밥을 너무 많이 먹은 것 같군요.
=> I think I ate too much.
- 비가 온 것 같았어요.
=> It looked as though it rained a lot.
- 곧 비가 올 것 같아요.
=> It looks as though it's going to rain soon.