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문형과 문법
( Patterns and Grammar Notes )


  1. N. + (이)라(서)
=> "as...being," "since it is," "because it is"

  • 요즘은 방학이라(서) 한가해요.
    => I am not busy these days because I'm on vacation.

  • 에이미는 제 친구라(서) 자주 놀러 와요.
    => As Amy is my friend, she often comes to see me.

  • 내일이 친구 생일이라서 선물을 사야 돼요.
    => Because tomorrow is my friend's birthday, I have to buy a present.

  2. A.V. + (으)려고 하다
=> "to intend to," "to plan to" "going to"

This construction indicates an intention or a plan.
  • 이번 학기에는 한국말을 공부하려고 한다.
    => I'm planning to study Korean this semester.

  • 내일 비행기 표를 사려고 해요.
    => I plan to buy the airplane ticket tomorrow.

  • 신문을 읽으려고 했는데, 너무 어려운 단어가 많았어요.
    => I was going to read the newspaper, but it had too many difficult words.

  3. Sentence ending V. + 네요

This informal sentence ending indicates that the speaker is making a remark. The speaker is not trying to inform the listener about something or get a response from him/her. 

  • 한국에 온지 한 달이 되네요. 
    => It's been a month since I came to Korea. 

  • 아기가 아침부터 이렇게 우네요.
    => The baby has been crying since morning. 

  • 한국에 가면 재미있겠네요? 
    => Wouldn't it be fun if you went to Korea? 

  4. V. + ㄹ/을 거예요.
=> "I think/expect it will . . ." 

This colloquial form of -을 것이에요 is an intimate statement ending for a future or expected event. Implicit in it is the speaker's expectation of what can happen or could have happened. Its formal ending is -ㄹ/을 겁니다, and its intimate short ending is -ㄹ/을 거야.
  • 방학이라 아마 집에 없을 거예요.
    => Since it's vacation (now), he won't be home.

  • 방학이라 아마 집에 없었을 거예요. 
    => As it was vacation, he must not have be home.

  • 주말이라서 길이 복잡할 거예요.
    => Because it's a weekend, the roads will be crowded. 

  • 주말이라서 길이 복잡했을 겁니다. 
    => Because it was a weekend, the roads must 
    have been crowded.

  5. V. + 어/아야 하(되)다
=> V. + 어/아야 하 다 "must," "have to," "should"
=> V. + 어/아야 되다 "must," "have to," "should"

Both constructions indicate an obligation or a requirement.
  • 일 학년 학생은 모두 기숙사에 살아야 해요.
    => First-year students must live in a dormitory.

  • 건강하려면 하루에 한번씩 걸어야 해요. 
    => To be healthy, one must take a walk daily.

  • 한국어를 잘 하려면, 연습을 많이 해야 돼요.
    => To speak Korean well, one has to practice  a lot.

  • 짜지 않은 음식을 먹어야 했어요.
    => When I was sick, I had to eat bland food.

  6. Special use of -이/가 and -을/를
Attention must be given to the choice of case marker or postposition for some verbs 
that appear to be transitive but in fact are intransitive in Korean. (A transitive verb is one that requires a direct object, and an intransitive verb is one that does not need a direct object.)
  • a. Some verbs seem to be transitive in English but require the subject marker -이/가 in Korean: 필요하다 "to need," 되다 "to become," 있다 "to have."
  • b. Some verbs seem to be intransitive but require the direct object marker 을/를 in Korean: 가다 "to go," 걷다 "to walk," 날다 "to fly," 다니다 "to attend."
  • 필요하다: 외국어를 배우는 학생은 사전이 필요하다.
    => A student who studies a foreign
     language needs a dictionary.

  • 되다: 도날드는 벌써 선생이 됐다.
    => Donald had already become a teacher.

  • 있다/없다: 우리도 차가 없어요.
    => We too have no cars.
  • 걷다: 아이들이 길을 걷는다.
    => Children are walking on the road. (아이 child) 

  • 날다: 새가 하늘을 난다. 
    => Birds are flying in the sky

This connective is similar to -(이)기 때문에 or -(이)어서 and is used in presenting a cause, condition, or conviction. -(이)라서 is used more colloquially than -(이)기 때문에 or -(이)어서.



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