=> "as...being," "since it is," "because it is"
- 요즘은 방학이라(서) 한가해요．
=> I am not busy these days because I'm on vacation.
- 에이미는 제 친구라(서) 자주 놀러 와요．
=> As Amy is my friend, she often comes to see me.
- 내일이 친구 생일이라서 선물을 사야 돼요．
=> Because tomorrow is my friend's birthday, I have to buy a present.
=> "to intend to," "to plan to" "going to"
This construction indicates an intention or a plan.
- 이번 학기에는 한국말을 공부하려고 한다．
=> I'm planning to study Korean this semester.
- 내일 비행기 표를 사려고 해요．
=> I plan to buy the airplane ticket tomorrow.
- 신문을 읽으려고 했는데， 너무 어려운 단어가 많았어요．
=> I was going to read the newspaper, but it had too many difficult words.
||3. Sentence ending V. + 네요
This informal sentence ending indicates that the speaker is making a remark. The speaker is not trying to inform the listener about something or get a response from him/her.
- 한국에 온지 한 달이 되네요.
=> It's been a month since I came to Korea.
- 아기가 아침부터 이렇게 우네요.
=> The baby has been crying since morning.
- 한국에 가면 재미있겠네요?
=> Wouldn't it be fun if you went to Korea?
=> "I think/expect it will . . ."
This colloquial form of -을 것이에요 is an intimate statement ending for a future or expected event. Implicit in it is the speaker's expectation of what can happen or could have happened. Its formal ending is -ㄹ/을 겁니다, and its intimate short ending is -ㄹ/을 거야.
- 방학이라 아마 집에 없을 거예요.
=> Since it's vacation (now), he won't be home.
- 방학이라 아마 집에 없었을 거예요.
=> As it was vacation, he must not have be home.
- 주말이라서 길이 복잡할 거예요.
=> Because it's a weekend, the roads will be crowded.
- 주말이라서 길이 복잡했을 겁니다.
=> Because it was a weekend, the roads must
have been crowded.
=> V. + 어/아야 하 다 "must," "have to," "should"
=> V. + 어/아야 되다 "must," "have to," "should"
Both constructions indicate an obligation or a requirement.
- 일 학년 학생은 모두 기숙사에 살아야 해요.
=> First-year students must live in a dormitory.
- 건강하려면 하루에 한번씩 걸어야 해요.
=> To be healthy, one must take a walk daily.
- 한국어를 잘 하려면, 연습을 많이 해야 돼요.
=> To speak Korean well, one has to practice a lot.
- 짜지 않은 음식을 먹어야 했어요.
=> When I was sick, I had to eat bland food.
Attention must be given to the choice of case marker or postposition for some verbs
||6. Special use of -이/가 and -을/를
that appear to be transitive but in fact are intransitive in Korean. (A transitive verb is one that requires a direct object, and an intransitive verb is one that does not need a direct object.)
- a. Some verbs seem to be transitive in English but require the subject marker -이/가 in Korean: 필요하다 "to need," 되다 "to become," 있다 "to have."
- b. Some verbs seem to be intransitive but require the direct object marker 을/를 in Korean: 가다 "to go," 걷다 "to walk," 날다 "to fly," 다니다 "to attend."
- 필요하다: 외국어를 배우는 학생은 사전이 필요하다.
=> A student who studies a foreign
language needs a dictionary.
- 되다: 도날드는 벌써 선생이 됐다.
=> Donald had already become a teacher.
- 있다/없다: 우리도 차가 없어요.
=> We too have no cars.
- 걷다: 아이들이 길을 걷는다.
=> Children are walking on the road. (아이 child)
- 날다: 새가 하늘을 난다.
=> Birds are flying in the sky
This connective is similar to -(이)기 때문에 or -(이)어서 and is used in presenting a cause, condition, or conviction. -(이)라서 is used more colloquially than -(이)기 때문에 or -(이)어서.