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제 2 과


문형과 문법
( Patterns and Grammar Notes )



Non-polite (intimate or plain) style speech
In the Korean language, the most important distinction is between the polite style and the non-polite style of speech. The non-polite style of speech is also known as intimate style or plain style speech. Non-polite style speech is used among social equals, by superiors to subordinates, and in intimate relationships.

Non-polite style speech employs different endings, depending on the tense and sentence type, as follows. (See also the intimate style speech chart below.)

a. Statement

  • Present
  • 지금 돈이 하나도 없어.
    => I have no money now.
    나는 아직 한국어가 서툴러. 
    => I'm not yet fluent in Korean.
    여기가 서울역이야. 
    => Here is Seoul Station.

  • Past

    어제는 돈이 있었어. 
    => I had money yesterday.
    어제는 추웠어. 
    => It was cold yesterday.

  • Future

    내일은 차가 생길 거야. 
    => Tomorrow I'll have a car. 
    그분이 내년에 선생님이 될 거야. 
    => Next year, he will become a teacher.

 b. Question 

  • Present 
  • 한국에서 전화하니?
    => Are you calling from Korea?
    얘가 네 동생이야?
    => Is this kid your younger sister/brother?
    지금 시간 좀 있니?
    =>Do you have time right now?

  • Past

    언제 왔어?
    =>When did you come?
    그 분이 네 선생님이셨어?
    =>Was he your teacher?
    편지 썼니?
    =>Did you write the letter?
    그게 숙제였니?
    =>Was it the homework?

  • future

    전화 할 거야?
    =>Will you call?
    전화 할 거니?
    =>Will you call?

c. "Let's"

  • Present

    자, 떠나자.
    => Well, let's take off/leave.
    학교에 가자.
    => Let's go to school.

d. Command

  • present

    숙제 해.
    => Do your homework.
    밥 먹어(라).
    => Eat your meal.
    집에 일찍 오너라.
    => Come home early.

e. Exclamation

  • Present

    저 나무가 참 빨리 자라는구나!
    => How fast the tree is growing!
    시간이 빨리도 가는구나!
    => Ah, time goes fast!
    조심해, 차가 온다!
    => Watch out, a car is coming!
    날씨가 좋다!
    => /The weather is nice!
    이것이 바로 내가 찾던 것이다! 
    => This is just what I was looking for!

  • Past

    너희들, 벌써 밥을 먹었구나.
    => All of you have already finished your meal.
    숙제를 다 했다. (만세!)
    => (I) finished all my homework. (Hooray!)

Intimate style speech chart 

Sentence Type
a. 평서문
b. 의문문
c. 청유문
d. 명령문
e. 감탄문
Sentence Ending
Present Tense
V. + (어/아).
N. + (이)야.
V. + (어/아)?
N. + (이)야?
V. + 니?
N. + (이)니?
V. + 자.
V. + (어/아).
V. + (어/아)라.
V. + 너라/거라
V. + (는)구나!
V. + (ㄴ/는)다!
N. + (이)다!
Past Tense
V. + 었/았어.
N. + 이었어./였어.
V. + 었/았어?
N. + 이었어?/였어?
V. + 었/았니?
N. + 이었니?/였니?

not applicable (N.A.)

V. + 었/았구나!
V. + 었/았다!
N. + (이)었/였다!
Future Tense
V. + ㄹ/을 거야.
N. + ㄹ/일거야
V. + ㄹ/을 거야?
V. + ㄹ/일 거니?
V. + 겠구나!
V. + 겠다!
N. + (이)겠다!

2. V. + ㄹ/을까(요)?
"would it . . . ?," "do you think it will . . . ?"

Although this question generally solicits the listener's opinion, it requires different responses depending on the context of the question.

a. Inviting "yes-no" answer 
: "would you like to . . . ?," "shall we . . . ?"

When the subject is we, this question invites the listener's permission or agreement.

  • 이것을 같이 의논해 볼까요?
    => Shall we discuss this together?
  • 이따 점심 식사를 같이 할까요?
    => Shall we have lunch together later?
  • 네, 좋아요. 같이 식사합시다. 
    => Yes, that's good. Let's eat together.

b. Asking for an opinion 
: "do you think . . . ?"

When the subject of the sentence is a third person (he, she, or they), it asks for the 
listener's opinion.

  • 김 선생님이 학교에 오실까요?
    => Do you think Mr. Kim will come to school?
  • 내일은 날씨가 좋을까요?
    => Do you think it will be nice tomorrow?
  • 아마 좋을 거예요.
    => Probably, it will be nice.

c. Asking for advice
: "Which is better . . . ?," "Shall I do this . . . or that . . . ?"

When the subject is I, the question asks for the listener's advice.

  • 제가 한가지 여쭈어 볼까요?
    => Shall I ask a question?
  • 제가 그 분에게 전화해 볼까요?
    => Shall I telephone him?
  • 공항에 가는데 공항 버스를 탈까요, 택시를 탈까요?
    => I am going to the airport; shall I take an airport bus or a cab?
  • 택시는 비싸니까 공항 버스를 타세요. 
    => Since a taxi is expensive, please take the airport bus.

3. V. + (으)니까
"because," "since," "as," "for"

This causal connective often omits 까 and becomes (으)니. It is used with a question or a "let's" sentence.

  • 시간이 없으니까 빨리 가자.
    => Since we don't have much time, let's go right away.
  • 그 동안 열심히 공부했으니까 잘 할 거예요.
    => Since you have studied hard, you will do well.
  • 택시는 비싸니까 지하철을 탈까요?
    => Since taxi fare is expensive, should we take the subway?
  • 약을 먹으니까 머리 아픈 게 없어졌다.
    => Because I took the medicine, I don't have a headache.

4. A.V. + ㄹ/을게(요)
=> "I/we will . . ."
This informal and colloquial ending indicates the speaker's intention. It may be used to indicate the intention of just the speaker.
  • 제가 시간을 낼게(요).
    => I will make time.
  • 제가 내주에 또 올게(요).
    => I will come again next week. 
  • 지금 약 먹을게.
    => I will take the medicine now. 

  5. V. + ㄴ/은/는/ㄹ/을 것 
=> "-ing," "to . . . ," "the fact that . . ."

-ㄴ/은/는/ㄹ/을 것 is a noun phrase, as shown in different tenses below: 

  • 배우다
    => to learn
  • 배우는 것 
    => thing(s) being learned
  • 배운 것
    => thing(s) learned 
  • 배울 것 
    => thing(s) to learn
  • 단어를 배우는 것이 많다. 
    => I am learning a lot of vocabulary.
  • 단어를 배운 것이 많다. 
    => I learned a lot of words.
  • 단어를 배울 것이 많다. 
    => I have a lot of words to learn.

Note that in colloquial usage, 것이 becomes 게.

  • 단어를 배우는 게 많다. 
    => I am learning a lot of vocabulary.
  • 단어를 배운 게 많다. 
    => I learned a lot of words.
  • 단어를 배울 게 많다. 
    => I have a lot of words to learn.

6. V. + 지 알다  =>"to know if/whether"
    V. + 지 모르다  => "not to know if/whether"

알다 and 모르다 verbs use -지 to mean "how to" or "if/whether," as illustrated in the examples below. When a question pronoun, such as 언제, 어디, 왜, 누가, 어떤, 무슨 or 무엇, precedes this construction, the speaker is inquiring when, where, why, who, which, what kind, or what, respectively.

동사 Verb With D.V. With A.V. With N.
Present Tense
V. + ㄴ/은지 알다/모르다. V. + 는지 알다/모르다. N. + ㄴ/은지 알다/모르다.
톰이 얼마나 큰지 모르니? 톰이 무엇을 읽는지 알아. 짐이 학생인지 몰라요.
Past Tense
V. + 는지 알다/모르다. V. + 었/았는지 알다/모르다.

N. + (이)었는지 알다/모르다.

톰이 얼마나 컸는지 모르니? 톰이 무엇을 읽었는지 알아. 짐이 학생이었는지 몰라요.
Future Tense
V. + ㄴ/은지 알다/모르다. V. + ㄹ/을지 알다/모르다. N. + ㄹ/일지 알다/모르다.
톰이 얼마나 클지 몰라. 톰이 무엇을 읽을지 알아. 짐이 학생일지 몰라요.

With a descriptive verb

  • 그 비행기가 얼마나 넓은지 아세요?
    => Do you know how wide the airplane is?
  • 어떤 선물이 좋은지 몰라요?
    => Don't you know which gift is appropriate?

With an action verb

  • 요즘 창수가 무슨 책을 읽는지 아니?
    => Do you know what books Changsu is reading?
  • 친구가 오늘 밤에 올지 몰라요. 
    => I don't know whether my friend is coming tonight.

With a noun

  • 그 사람이 누군지 알아요?
    => Do you know who the man is?
  • 그 사람이 학생인지 모르겠어요.
    => He may be a student. / I don't know if he is a student.

In the past and future tenses

  • 그 분이 한국에서 왔는지 알아요?
    => Do you know whether he came from Korea?
  • 언제부터 서울이 수도였는지 몰라요.
    => I don't know how long (from when) Seoul has been the capital.
  • 내일 경주가 그 책을 살지 몰라요.
    => I don't know if Kyung-ju is going to buy the book tomorrow.

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