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제 4 과

문형과 문법
( Patterns and Grammar Notes )



A.V. + 기로 하다 

=> "to decide to"

This sentence ending indicates a decision or a plan and is usually used in the past tense. (See L11, GN1 in College Korean.) 

  • 과장님을 만나기로 했다.
    => I decided to meet the manager.

  • 파티에 한복을 입고 가기로 했다.
    => I decided to wear a Korean dress to the party.

  • 이번 학기에는 경제학을 듣기로 했어요. 
    => I decided to take an economics class this semester.

2.  a. A.V. + 자
=> "as," "soon after" 
b. A.V. + 자마자. . .
=> "as soon as"

-자 and -자마자 are very close in meaning, but -자마자 seems to have more immediacy than -자. -자 cannot be used in a command or a "let's . . ." construction. 


  • 서울에 도착하자 은행으로 갔다. 
    => Shortly after I arrived in Seoul, I went to a bank.
  • 영화가 시작하자 아기가 울기 시작했다. 
    => As the movie started, a baby started to cry.


  • 그 소식을 듣자마자 전화를 걸었다. 
    => As soon as I heard the news, I made a phone call. 
  • 엄마를 보자마자 아기가 웃었다. 
    => The baby smiled as soon as she saw her mother.

3.  N. + (이)나

=> "just," "nothing else but . . ."

This construction has the meaning of "nothing better to do, so (I) will just . . ." 

  • 낮잠이나 잘까. 
    => (There's not much to do.) Maybe I'll just take a nap.
  • 방학동안 책이나 읽으려고 해. 
    => I am just going to read books during the vacation.
  • 심심해서 TV나 보기로 했다.
    => I was bored, and I decided just to watch TV.

4.  a.  얼마나/어찌나 D.V. + ㄴ/은지 
=> "It is so D.V. that . . ."
얼마나/어찌나 D.V. + (었/았)던지 
=> "It was so/such D.V. that . . ."
b.  얼마나/어찌나 (ADV.) A.V. + 는지 
=> "It is such (ADV.) A.V. that . . ."
얼마나/어찌나 (ADV.) A.V. + (었/았)던지 
=> "It was such (ADV.) A.V. that . . ."

This construction is used for emphasis. 얼마나 and 어찌나 are generally interchangeable.

  • 나는 얼마나 급한지 신발도 못 신고 뛰어 나갔어요.
    => I was in such a hurry that I ran out without wearing shoes.
  • 날씨가 얼마나 추웠던지 죽을 뻔 했어요.
    => It was so cold that I nearly died.
  • 그 학생은 어찌나 열심히 공부하는지 잠도 많이 안 자요. 
    => The student works so hard that he doesn't sleep much.
  • 그 차가 어찌나 빨리 가던지 못 따라갔어요. 
    => The car went so fast that I couldn't follow it. 

5.  a.  N. + 밖에 모르다
=> "to know/care about only," "to know nothing but"
b.  V. + ㄴ/은/는 것밖에 모르다
=> "to know nothing but -ing"

-밖에 모르다 has several meanings, depending on the context: "knows only," "is concerned only about," "cares only about," or "being interested only in." 

  • 수진이는 책밖에 몰라요.
    => Soojin cares only about books. 
  • 저 아이는 공부하는 것밖에 몰라.
    => She cares only about studying.
  • 우리 고양이는 먹는 것밖에 몰라.
    => Our cat is interested only in food.

"Only" is expressed usually in two ways: with -만 or with -밖에, which must be followed by a negative (안, 못, -지 않다, 없다, or 모르다). 

  • 유럽에서 그리스와 이태리밖에 못 가 봤어요. 
    => I have been only to Greece and Italy in Europe. 
  • 그리스와 이태리만 가 봤어요.
    => I have been only to Greece and Italy in Europe. 
  • 월요일에는 학교밖에 안 나가요.
    => The only place I go on Monday is to school.
  • 월요일에는 학교만 나가요.
    => I go only to school on Mondays.
  • 지갑에 5 불밖에 없어요.
    => I have only five dollars in my wallet.
  • 저는 비타민 씨밖에 먹지 않아요. 
    => I take only vitamin C. 

Note that it is incorrect to say 저는 비타민 C밖에를 먹지 않아요 or . . . C를밖에 먹지 않아요, but 저는 비타민 C만을 먹어요 or 학생모임에만 나가요 is fine.

6.  V. + (어/아)도
=> "even if," "although," "even though"

This construction supposes a real or an unreal event/situation and draws a conclusion. When it is used with 아무리 . . . (어/아)도, it means "no matter how . . ."

  • 급한 일이 있어도 전화가 없어서 연락할 수 없어요.
    => Even if there's an emergency, I can't contact you because I have no phone. 
  • 친구를 사귀어도 자주 만날 수 없어요.
    => Although I make friends, I can't meet with them often. 
  • 아무리 추워도 나가야 돼요.
    => No matter how cold it is, you/I have to go out.

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