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제 6 과

문형과 문법
( Patterns and Grammar Notes )




V. + (으)므로

=> "because," "as," "for," "since," "for being . . ."
b.  N. + (이)므로
=> "because it is . . ."

This causal connective (으/이)므로 is rarely used colloquially. Other causal connectives, -(으)니까, -기 때문에, -(어/아)서, and -(으)니, are used in spoken language. These causal connectives are not always interchangeable. 

  • 파올로의 생일은 형 생일보다 두 달쯤 늦으므로 9월이다. 
    => Since Paolo's birthday is about two months behind his older brother's, it's in September.

  • 가을 날씨가 좋으므로 관광객이 많이 온다. 
    => Since the fall weather is good, many tourists are coming.

  • 아버님이 오셨으므로 그날은 일찍 집에 가기로 했다. 
    => Since my father was visiting, I decided to go home early that day. 

  • 사흘 있으면 명절이므로 길이 막힐 거다. 
    => Because the holiday starts in three days, the roads will be jammed.
  • 내일이 추석이므로 할머니 댁에 가야 한다. 
    => Because tomorrow is Ch'usŏk, I must go to Grandmother's house. 
  • 내일부터 휴가(이)므로 오늘 일을 끝마쳐야겠다. 
    => Since my vacation begins tomorrow, I have to finish the job today.

2.  내려가다 versus 올라가다
=> "to go down" versus "to go up"

When one goes to the capital city of Seoul, it is said that one "goes up" to Seoul, and when one goes from Seoul to another area, it is said one "goes down" to that area. Similarly, one 들어 가다 "goes into" the city and 나가다 "goes out" to a suburb. 

  • 할머니께 인사하러 지방에 내려가는 길이에요. 
    => I am on my way down to the country to visit my grandmother. 
  • 일하러 서울에 올라가는 길이에요. 
    => I am going up to Seoul in order to work.
  • 옷을 사러 시내에 들어갔어요. 
    => I went into the city (downtown) to buy clothes.
  • 주말에 시외로 드라이브 나갔어요. 
    => I went out to the suburbs for a drive over the weekend.

3.  ADV. 꼼짝

=> "a tiny bit (of motion)"

꼼짝 is generally used with a negative―for example, 안 and 못 or with the negative ending 없다, 말다, or -지 않다. It may be used positively, however, in a question. (Certain adverbs may be used only in the negative. See L20, GN2 for more on negative adverbs.) 

  • 꼼짝도 안 한다. 
    => It does not move, even a little bit. 
  • 꼼짝 할 수 없다. 
    => I am not able to move at all/even a little bit. 
  • 나는 요즘 바빠서 꼼짝도 못한다. 
    => Because I am busy these days, I can't go out at all.
  • 꼼짝 말아라! 
    => Don't move! 
  • 그 차 속에서 꼼짝 할 수 있니? 
    => Can you move at all in the car?

4.  More on indirect speech types
command, question, and "let's"

(See L9, GN5 for a summary of indirect speech endings.) 



Indirect Commands 

A.V. + (으)라고 하다
=> "(they) tell/ask/order to do . . ."
A.V. + 지 말라고 하다 
=> "(they) tell/ask/order not to . . ."

An indirect command is one in which the speaker is reporting a directive that is being given by someone else. (See L5, GN2 for indirect statements.)

  • 이리 오라고 한다. 
    => (He) tells (us) to come here.
  • 이 책을 읽으라고 했어요. 
    => (He) told (me) to read this book.
  • 여기로 오라고 해서 왔어요. 
    => I was told to come here, so I came. 
  • 박 과장님을 찾으라고 했어요. 
    => I was told to find Manager Park.
  • 학교 컴퓨터를 사용하지 말라고 해요. 
    => (He) tells me not to use the school computer. 
  • 두 사람을 비교하지 말랬어요. 
    => (He) told me not to compare the two people with each other.

When an indirect command ends in -(어/아) 주다, (드리다 for honorific), or -(어/아) 달라다, the speaker must consider who is commanding whom and the relationships among the speaker, the addressee, and the person spoken of, as in the following context:

  • (선생님이 나에게) 동생에게 책을 읽어 주라고 하셨어요. 
    => (My teacher told me) to read books to my younger brother.
  • (선생님이 나에게) 어머니한테 전화 걸어 드리라고 하세요.
    => My teacher tells (me) to call my mother.
  • 선생님께서 로사에게 내일 전화를 걸어 달라고 하셨어.
    => Her teacher asked Rosa to call her  tomorrow.
  • 아들이 아버지에게 컴퓨터를 사 달라고 했어. 
    => The son asked his father to buy him a computer. 



Indirect Questions 

D.V. + (으)냐고 하다 
A.V. + (느)냐고 하다 
N. + (이)냐고 하다

=> "(Someone) asks whether/if . . ."

Indirect questions are ones in which the speaker is reporting a question that is being asked by another individual. -(으)냐고 하다 is used after descriptive verbs, and -(느)냐고 하다 is used after action verbs. 으 and 느 may be dropped for some verbs. For example, one may say 길이 좁냐고 한다 or 길이 좁으냐고 한다 "(Someone) asks if the road is narrow," and 지금 눈이 오냐고 한다 or 지금 눈이 오느냐고 한다 "(Someone) asks whether it's snowing now." 

  • 방이 넓으냐고 해요. 
    => (He) asks if the room is spacious.
  • 언제 오냐고 해요. 
    => (He) asks (me) when I will come.
  • 언제 밥을 먹(느)냐고 했어요. 
    => (He) asked when we are eating. 
  • 내일이 초하루냐고 했어요. 
    => (He) asked whether tomorrow is the first of the month.
  • 어제가 그믐이었냐고 했어요. 
    => (He) asked whether yesterday was the end of the month.
  • 학교가 클 거냐고 해요. 
    => (He) asks whether the school is going to be large.
  • 언제 올 거냐고 해요. 
    => (He) asks (me) when I will come.



Indirect "let's"

A.V. + 자고 하다
=> "(they) say, let's . . ." 

This construction is used only with an action verb. There are no tense changes.

  • 영화 보러 가자고 한다. 
    => (She) says, let's go to see a movie.

5.  A.V. + ㄴ/은/는 김에
=> "while one is at it/doing it," "since/because"

This colloquial expression is used when we say, "while we are at it, we might as well do . . . ," and use the verbal modifier ㄴ/은 or 는, depending on the tense.

  • 은행에 가는 김에 서점에도 들를까? 
    => Since we are going to the bank, shall we stop at a bookstore?
  • 뉴욕에 간 김에 자유의 여신상을 구경했다. 
    => While we were in New York City, we toured the Statue of Liberty. 

6.  a.  D.V. + ㄴ/은 편이다
=> "to be kind of," "to be rather," "to be relatively"
b.  A.V. + ㄴ/은/는 편이다 
=> "to be kind of," "to be rather," "to be relatively"

Used with descriptive verbs, this expression indicates that something is "relatively" or "kind of" 좋다 "good," 크다 "big," 많다 "many," and so on. For action verbs, it is often accompanied by an adverb or an adverbial phrase that modifies the verb, as in 빨리 읽는 편이다 "to read kind of fast."


  • 아기가 착한 편인데 피곤해서 지금 운다. 
    => The baby is usually rather good-natured, but he is crying now because he is tired.
  • 세일인데도 비싼 편이다. 
    => It's on sale, but it's still rather expensive.
  • 어려서 우리 누나는 키가 작은 편이었다. 
    => My sister was relatively short when she was young.


  • 수잔은 불어보다 독어를 잘 하는 편이다. 
    => Susan speaks German somewhat better than French.
  • 중학교 때 나는 책을 빨리 읽는 편이었다. 
    => I read books relatively fast when (I was) in middle school.
  • 그 사람 부자 에요? 아니오. 못 사는 편이에요.
    => Is he rich? No, he is fairly poor.

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