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제 9 과
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문형과 문법
( Patterns and Grammar Notes )

1. 

a. 

V. + 기 위해(서)/기 위하여

=> "for," "for the sake of," "in order to"
b.  N. + 을/를 위해(서)/위하여
=> "for," "for the benefit of"
  • 법관이 되기 위해서 시험 준비를 하고 있어요. 
    => I am preparing for my exams to become a lawyer.

  • 할아버님을 뵙기 위하여 중국에 갔어요.
    => I went to China to see my grandfather.

  • 잃어버린 차를 찾기 위해 경찰관을 만나기로 했다. 
    => I made arrangements to meet with the police to find my stolen car.


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2.  a.  N. + 만큼
=> "(almost) as much as," "as well as"

b. 

V. + ㄴ/은/는/ㄹ/을 + 만큼

=> "do as much as," "is enough to . . ."


(a) 만큼 indicates that the subject noun is or does almost as well as the noun it is compared with in the sentence.
  • 동생이 형만큼 키가 크다. 
    => The younger brother is as tall as his older brother.
  • 시애틀은 디트로이트만큼 춥지 않다. 
    => Seattle is not as cold as Detroit. 

(b) The verbal modifiers are -는 for present, -ㄴ/은 for past, and -ㄹ/을 for future tense.

  • 친구가 돈을 빌려달라는 만큼 줬다. 
    => I lent my friend as much money as he wanted to borrow.
  • 공부한 만큼 배울 거다. 
    => You will learn as much as you study. 
  • 그 책은 돈 주고 살 만큼 재미있지 않다. 
    => The book is not interesting enough for me to buy it. 
  • 그 물건은 비싼 만큼 좋지 않다. 
    => The stuff is not worth what it costs.


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3. 

a. 

V. + ㄹ/을수록

=> "the more one does . . . , the more . . ."

b. 

V. + (으)면 V. + ㄹ/을수록

=> "the more one does . . . , the more . . ." (emphasis)

Both constructions are close in meaning, but the second has a stronger emphasis.

(a) 
  • 생각할수록 더 모르겠다. 
    => The more I think about it, the more confused I am. 
  • 이 책은 읽을수록 더 재미있다. 
    => The more I read, the more interesting this book becomes.
  • 돈을 많이 벌수록 더 바빠져요. 
    => The more money you make, the busier you get.

(b) 

  • 갈 길이 멀면 멀수록 일찍 떠나야 한다. 
    => The farther you have to travel, the earlier you must leave.
  • 물을 주면 줄수록 나무가 빨리 자랐다. 
    => The more I watered the tree, the faster it grew.

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4.  V. + ㄴ/은/는/ㄹ/을 모양이다
=> "it looks . . . ," "it seems . . . ," "it appears . . ."

This pattern expresses the speaker's opinion of an action or an event.

  • 그 책이 재미있는 모양이다. 
    => It seems that the book is interesting (to him).
  • 사람이 많이 온 모양이다. 
    => It looks as though many people came.
  • 누가 전화를 건 모양이다. 
    => It looks as though someone called.
  • 오후에 비가 올 모양이다. 
    => It appears that it is going to rain this afternoon. 


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5.  Indirect speech:  polite informal forms
=> "they say . . . ," "someone says . . ." 

-대요, -래요, -(으)래요, -냬요, and 재요 are the colloquial short forms of -다고 해요/합니다, -라고 해요/합니다, -자고 해요/합니다, and -냐고 해요/합니다, as illustrated below. (See L5, GN2 and the indirect speech endings chart below). Polite formal short forms of -답니다, -랍니다, -(으)랍니다, -냡니다, and -잡니다 are explained in L20, GN1.

  • 할머니께서 내일 미국에 오신대. 
    => (They say that) Grandma is coming to the United States tomorrow.
  • 내일도 또 비가 온대. 
    => (They say that) it will rain again tomorrow.
  • 그 사람이 가수래. 
    => (They say that) he is a singer.
  • 이 물건이 그 회사의 수출품이래. 
    => (It's said that) this is the company's export item. 
  • 친구가 나에게 지금 나오래. 
    => My friend tells me to come out now.
  • 전화를 빨리 받으래. 
    => (Someone) says to answer the phone. 
  • 친구가 공원에 놀러 가래. 
    => My friend tells us go to the park to play.
  • 요즘 기분이 어떠냬요. 
    => (He/She asks) how I/you feel.
  • 날씨가 좋냬요. 
    => (They ask) whether the weather is nice. 
  • 숙제하러 도서관에 가재. 
    => (He/She) invites us to go to the library.
Indirect speech endings chart
Sentence Types Statement Statement Command
Plain Form V. + 다고 하다
V. + 었/았다고 하다
V. + ㄹ/을거라고 하다
N. + (이)라고 하다
N. + (이)었다고 하다
N. + 일거라고 하다
V. + (으)라고 하다
Polite Informal
Short Form
-대요
-었/았대요
-ㄹ/을거래요
(이)래요
-(이)었대요
-일거래요
-(으)래요
Polite Formal
Short Form
-답니다
-었/았답니다
-을거랍니다
-(이)랍니다
-(이)었답니다
-일거랍니다
-(으)랍니다
Meaning it is said that . . . (present)
it is said that . . . (past)
it is said that . . . (future)
they say that . . . is . . . 
they say that . . . was . . .
they say that . . . will be . . .
they tell us to do . . .

Sentence Types Question "let's"
Plain Form D.V. + (으)냐고 하다
A.V. + (느)냐고 하다
N. + (이)냐고 하다
V. + 었/았냐고 하다 
N. + (이)었냐고 하다
V. + ㄹ/을거냐고 하다
N. + 일거냐고 하다
V. + 자고 하다
Polite Informal
Short Form
-(느)냬요
-(느)냬요
-(이)냬요
-었/았냬요
-였냬요
-ㄹ/을거냬요
-일거냬요
-재요
Polite Formal
Short Form
-냡니다 
-냡니다
-(이)냡니다
-었/았냡니다 
-(이)었냡니다
-ㄹ/을거냡니다
-일거냡니다
-잡니다
Meaning ask whether/if . . . (present) 
ask whether/if . . . (present)
ask whether/if . . . (present)
ask whether/if . . . (past)
ask whether/if . . . (past)
ask whether/if . . . (future)
ask whether/if . . . (future)
they ask/invite to do . . .

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6.  N. + 같은 
=> "like," "same as"
  • 신사임당 같은 여자 
    => a woman like Lady Sin Saimdang 
  • 어머니 같은 언니 
    => my sister, who is like Mother
  • 천사 같은 마음 
    => a heart like an angel
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