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제 11 과
항구도시를 찾아서

문형과 문법
( Patterns and Grammar Notes )



N. + (으)로(서)

=> "as," "for," "being (in the position of)"

This postposition indicates the qualification or status of the noun. 

  • 뉴욕은 항구도시로서, 무역이 발달됐다. 
    => As a port city, New York is advanced in the commercial trades. 
  • 이 약은 새로 나온 감기 약으로서 특히 기침에 좋습니다. 
    => This medicine is a newly made cold medicine that is especially good for a cough.
  • 대통령으로서 그런 말을 하면 안 된다. 
    => As the president, he should not say so.

2.  a.   N. + (이/가) 없이
=> "without (something/someone)"


V. + ㄴ/은/는/ㄹ/을 것 없이

=> "without -ing . . ."


V. + ㅁ/음 없이

=> "without -ing . . ." 

  • 전화 없이 살고 있어요. 
    => I live without a telephone.
  • 컴퓨터 없이(는) 숙제를 할 수 없어요. 
    => We cannot do homework without a computer.


  • 하는 일 없이 시간을 보낸다. 
    => I spend time without doing anything.
  • 한 일 없이 하루가 지났다. 
    => A day has gone by without my doing anything. 


  • 끊임 없이 배가 들어온다. 
    => Boats come in constantly.
  • 아무 도움 없이 성공했다. 
    => He succeeded without any help.
  • 그 분은 막힘 없이 말했다. 
    => The man spoke without hesitation.

Note: Nominalizer ㅁ/음 "to do/be," "-ing"

This construction makes a verb into a noun, as a gerund ("-ing") does in English. For example, 싸우다 "to fight" becomes 싸움 "fighting," and 끝나다 "to finish" becomes 끝남 "the ending." These nouns are used only in certain contexts, however. They are used as the subject of intransitive verbs, such as 필요하다 "to need," 중요하다 "to be important," 있다 "to exist," and 없다 "to not exist." They also are used as the direct object of transitive verbs, as 보다 "to see," 찾다 "to find," 알다 "to know," and 생각하다 "to think." (See L15, GN1 for a comparison with the nominalizer -기.) Note that some verb-derived words have become regular nouns, such as 잠 "sleep," 춤 "dance," 기쁨 "joy," and 아름다움 "beauty."

As a subject

  • 시험 주에는 잠이 모자라요. 
    => I lack sleep during exam week.
  • 한국어 책을 읽는 데에 어려움이 없다. 
    => I have no difficulty reading Korean books.

As a direct object

  • 그 분은 인생의 즐거움을 알고 사는 것 같다. 
    => He seems to live knowing the joy of life.
  • 나라 없는 사람의 슬픔을 안다. 
    => We understand the sorrow of a man without a country.


A.V. + ㄴ/은/는 순간

=> "the moment," "at the moment of"

순간 expresses the exact moment of an action, the instant that something happens.

  • 큰 어시장을 보는 순간 나는 깜짝 놀랐다. 
    => I was so surprised the moment I saw the big fish market.
  • 그 사람을 처음 만난 순간 나는 사랑에 빠졌다.
    => The moment I met the man, I fell in love with him. 
  • 그 소식을 듣는 순간 기뻐서 뛰었다. 
    => When I heard the news, I jumped with joy.

4.  V. + ㄴ/은 적이 있다/없다
=> "there has/has never been," "to have/have never done" 
V. + 어/아 본 적이 있다/없다
=> "there has/has never been," "to have/have never done"

적 "occasion" indicates an experience and is often used with (어/아) 보다 as in 거기에 가 본 적이 있다 "I've been there." Another way of saying it is 거기에 가 본 일이 있다.

  • 나는 미국에서도 어시장을 본 적이 있다. 
    => I have seen a fish market in the United States, too.
  • 해삼, 미역을 먹어 본/먹은 적이 없다. 
    => I have never eaten sea cucumber and seaweed.
  • 한중록을 읽어 본 적이 있어요? 
    => Have you read The Memoir of Lady Hong?
  • 이월에 날씨가 이렇게 따뜻한 적이 없다. 
    => It has never been this warm in February.

5.  V. + 지 않을 수 없다
=> "could not help but," "there is no way but"

There is a sense of involuntary and obligatory action in this expression.

  • 놀라지 않을 수 없었다. 
    => There was no way that I could not have been surprised.
  • 찰스는 러시아에 살아서 러시아어를 배우지 않을 수 없다. 
    => Since Charles lives in Russia, he can't help but learn Russian.
  • 친구의 결혼식이라 가지 않을 수 없다. 
    => Because it's my friend's wedding, I can't miss it.
  • 여름이 됐으니 날씨가 덥지 않을 수 없지. 
    => Summer has come, so there is no way that the weather will not be hot.

6.  A.V. + 기(가) 무섭게
=> "as soon as," "immediately (after)"

This idiomatic expression gives a vivid image of something happening immediately after the act or the event in the first clause.

  • 배가 부두에 닿기가 무섭게 선원들이 내려 왔다.
    => Immediately after the ship reached the pier, the crew got off (the ship). 
  • 집을 짓기가 무섭게 이사할 것이다. 
    => As soon as they finish the house, they will move in.

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