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제 12 과
항구도시를 찾아서

 
문형과 문법
( Patterns and Grammar Notes )

1.

A.V. + (어/아) 봐야지요

=> "should (try) . . . ," "must (try to) . . . "

This pattern expresses the speaker's intention to try to do something. It means "I will certainly try . . ." or "I should try . . ." 

  • 설악산에도 가 봐야지요.
    => I should (try to) go to the Sŏrak Mountains.

  • 신사임당의 시를 읽어 봐야지.
    => I must (try to) read Lady Shin Sa-im-dang's poems.

  • 그림도 구해 봐야지.
    => I must try to find her paintings.

Note that -(어/아)야지 expresses the intention of the speaker, as in "I should" or "I must."

  • 지금 집에 가야지.  
    => I should go home now.

  • 밥 먹어야지.
    => I should eat.

  • 숙제를 해야지.
    => I should do my homework.

The informal speech ending -지(요) can be either a statement or a question, depending on the intonation and context.

  • 비행기표를 사지? 
    => You will buy the airplane ticket, won't you?
  • 한국은 추석 때에 바쁘지요. 
    => (I'm saying that) they are busy during Ch'usŏk.

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2.  a.  N. + ㄹ/일 텐데(요)
=> "I imagine," "I would think," "it must be"
b.  V. + ㄹ/을 텐데(요) 
=> "I imagine," "I would think," "it must be"
This short connective form of -을/일 터인데 indicates the speaker's expectation or anticipation. It is derived from the verb 터이다 "to expect" and the connective -ㄴ/는데.

(a)
  • 동부에 단풍이 한창일 텐데(요). 
    => The fall foliage must be wonderful in the East.
  • 오늘이 동생 생일일 텐데 케이크를 먹었는지 모르겠다. 
    => Today must be my younger sibling's birthday, but I don't know whether he/she had a cake.

 (b) 

  • 피곤할 텐데 자지도 않고 책을 본다. 
    => He must be tired, but he reads on without sleeping.
  • 날씨가 추울 텐데 반바지를 입고 돌아다닌다. 
    => The weather should be cold, but he is walking around in shorts.

Note that V. + ㄹ/을 테니(까) means "since/because (it is expected to)." It indicates the speaker's expectation in regard to an event or an action. This construction comes from the connective (으)니까 "because" attached to the ㄹ/을 터이다 "is expected" ending.

  • 걸어가야 할 테니(까) 편한 신을 신으세요. 
    => Since we'll have to walk, please wear comfortable shoes.
  • 내일까지 다 마칠 테니(까) 너무 걱정하지 마세요. 
    => I'll finish them all by tomorrow, so don't worry too much.
  • 날씨가 추울 테니까 두꺼운 옷을 입고 나가세요. 
    => The weather will be cold, so go out with thick (warm) clothes on.
  • 버스 타면 늦을 테니까 지하철을 타자. 
    => We'll be late if we take a bus, so let's go by subway. 


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3.  D.V. + ㄴ/은가 봐요
=> "I think it is," "it seems"
A.V. + 나 봐요
=> "I think it is," "it seems"

These endings express the speaker's supposition or guess. In this context, 있다 and 없다 are action verbs and they end in -나 봐요, as in 내일 숙제가 있나 봐요 "It seems there will be homework due tomorrow," and 그러나 시험은 없나 봐요 "but it seems there will be no test."

           

a. 

present

D.V. + ㄴ/은가 봐(요) 
A.V. + 나 봐(요) 
N. + ㄴ/인가 봐(요)
=> "I think it is," "it seems"
           

b. 

past

V. + 었/았나 봐(요) 

=> "I think it was," "it seems" 
           

c. 

future 

V. + ㄹ/을 건가 봐요 

=> "I think it will be," "it seems"
(a)
  • 오늘 날씨가 추운가 봐요.
    => I think the weather is cold today.
  • 경치가 좋은가 봐요.
    => I think the scenery is beautiful.
  • 그 분이 내일 한국에 가나 봐요.
    => I think he is going to Korea tomorrow.
  • 요즘 그 가수가 인기가 있나 봐요. 
    => I think the singer is popular these days.
  • 여기가 강의실인가 봐.
    => It seems as though this is the classroom.
(b)
  • 친구가 선물을 샀나 봐. 
    => I think my friend bought a gift.
  • 수업을 어제는 여기서 했나 봐. 
    => It seems that the class was held here yesterday.

(c) 

  • 내일은 날씨가 더울 건가 봐요. 
    => It seems as though it's going to be hot tomorrow. 

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4.  Adverb -적으로
 

-적으로 makes adverbs from Sino-Korean nouns. It is a two-step process: first, -적 makes an adjective from a noun, as in 역사적; second, -으로 is added to make an adverb, as in 전통적으로 "traditionally," 역사적으로 "historically," and so on, as illustrated below. Korean nouns are not changed in this manner. For example, the Sino-Korean noun 인간 can be changed to 인간적으로 "as a human being," but the Korean noun 사람 cannot be changed to 사람적으로.

Noun
Adjective

Adverb

역사
history  
역사적
historical  
역사적으로
historically 
세계
world 
세계적
world(-wide)
세계적으로
internationally 
전통
tradition 
전통적
traditional 
전통적으로
traditionally 
인상
impression
인상적
impressive 
인상적으로
impressively 
지리
geography
지리적
geographical 
지리적으로
geographically 
기계
machine
기계적
mechanical
기계적으로
mechanically


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5.  N. + (이)(라)면 누구/무엇 + (이)나
=> "if . . . is then whoever/whatever . . . ,"/"any (person/thing) would..." 

Literally, this expression means "if (one is) . . . , then (he/she does) . . ." Other question words, such as 어디, 언제, 어떤, or 누구, are used with this construction. (See also -든지 in L10, GN4.)

  • 한국 음식이라면 무엇이나 잘 먹는다. 
    => If it's Korean food, I like it all. 
  • 그 남자는 콘서트라면 어디나 간다. 
    => If it's a concert, he will go anywhere. He will go any place for a concert.
  • 학생이면 누구나 좋은 성적을 원한다. 
    => Any student would want a good grade. 
  • 중년 남자라면 누구나 운동이 필요하다. 
    => Any middle-aged man would need exercise.

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6.  a.  N. + 처럼
=> "like"
b.  V. + ㄴ/은/는 것처럼 
=> "as," "as though," "as well as"

Attached to a noun, -처럼 means "someone or something is like some other person or thing." Its meaning is close to -같이. When used after ㄴ/는 것, it means "as if" or "like doing." 
(a)
  • 그분은 학자처럼 연구만 한다. 
    => Like a scholar, he does only research .
  • 여름처럼 꽃이 한창이다. 
    => It's like summer; the flowers are in full bloom.
  • 언니처럼 동생도 불어를 잘 해요. 
    => The younger sister speaks French as well as her older sister.
(b)
  • 시를 잘 쓰는 것처럼 그림도 잘 그린다. 
    => He paints as well as he writes poems.
  • 한국어를 잘 하는 것처럼 영어도 잘 한다. 
    => She speaks English as well as she speaks Korean.
  • 성격이 좋은 것처럼 재주도 있다. 
    => He is as talented as he is good-natured.
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