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제 13 과

문형과 문법
( Patterns and Grammar Notes )


A.V. + (어/아) 두다

=> "...and keep"

Like other helping verbs, such as -보다, -버리다, and -놓다, -(어/아)두다 "to keep/put away" is combined with another verb to indicate the "preservation" of the result of the main verb action, often for a future use. (See the helping verbs chart in L14, GN7

  • 봐 두다 
    => "to see and keep the knowledge (for future use)"
  • 배워 두다 
    => "to learn and keep the skill (for future use)"
  • 먹어 두다 
    => "to eat (in anticipation of . . .)"
  • 사 두다 
    => "to buy and keep"

  • 이사갈 아파트를 봐 두어야겠다. 
    => I must go and see the apartment that I'll be moving to (to prepare it).
  • 배가 안 고팠지만 밥을 먹어 뒀다. 
    => I wasn't hungry, but I ate a meal (so I would not be hungry later on).
  • 주유소에 가서 차에 기름을 많이 넣어 두었다. 
    => I went to a gas station and filled up the tank (so I would not run out of gas).
  • 고구마를 많이 심어 두었다. 
    => They planted a great many yams (to harvest later).
  • 여행을 가려고 돈을 모아 뒀다. 
    => I saved money to make a trip.
  • 친구 생일에 주려고 선물을 사 뒀다. 
    => I bought a gift (and saved it) for my friend's birthday. 

2.   A.V. + (어/아) 대다
=> "to keep on doing," "to do repeatedly"

This helping verb indicates a continuing or repeated action. (See the helping verb chart in L14, GN7.)

  • 농담을 하고 웃어 댄다. 
    => They joked and kept laughing.
  • 사람들이 떠들어 댔다. 
    => The people talked loudly on and on. 
  • 아이들이 스키 가자고 졸라 댔다. 
    => The children begged on and on to go skiing.

3.  a.  V. + 었/았던

=> "used to do," "was doing. . ."

b.  N. + (이)었던

=> "used to be"

This verbal modifier indicates an activity that was performed habitually in the past or was uncompleted.


  • 내가 생각했던 문제가 해결됐다. 
    => The problem I was thinking about was solved. 
  • 내가 다녔던 초등학교가 문을 닫았다. 
    => The primary school I used to attend is closed.
  • 어렸을 때 읽었던 책을 다시 읽었다. 
    => I read again the book I used to read when I was young.


  • 화산이었던 산은 지금도 가끔 연기가 난다. 
    => Former volcanic mountains still make smoke sometimes.
  • 대통령이었던 사람이 지금은 농부가 됐다. 
    => The one who used be the president is now a farmer.
  • 해녀였던 여자이기 때문에 수영을 잘한다. 
    => Because she used to be a sea diver, she is very good at swimming. 

4.  a.  V. + ㄹ/을 뿐만 아니라

=> "not only . . . but also," "as well as"

b.  N. + 뿐만 아니라

=> "not only N. but also N. . ."

N. + 도

=> "not only N. but also N. . ."

This pattern indicates that both nouns or noun phrases of the sentence are of equal importance. 


  • 이 나라는 식물이 다를 뿐만 아니라 동물도 다르다. 
    => Not only the plants but also the animals are different in this country.
  • 소설을 읽을 뿐만 아니라 만화책도 좋아한다. 
    => She not only reads novels but also likes comic books.


  • 학생뿐만 아니라 선생님도 약속을 깜빡 잊었다. 
    => Not only the student but the teacher also forgot the appointment.
  • 제주도뿐만 아니라 하와이도 가봤다. 
    => I have been not only to Cheju Island but also to Hawaii.

5.  a.   할 수 없이 . . . 

=> "having no choice," "without an alternative"

b.  할 수 없다

=> "can't help it," "can't do"

This expression is usually preceded by a clause with -(어/아)서, -지만, -(으)므로, or 어/아도. When it has no connected clause, it is preceded by 그래서 "so," " therefore." 


  • 집에 먹을게 하나도 없어서 할 수 없이 라면을 끓여 먹었어요. 
    => Because there was nothing else to eat in the house, I had no choice but to boil and eat noodles. 
  • 비행기표가 매진되어 할 수 없이 기차로 가야 했다. 
    => Since the plane tickets were sold out, I had no choice but to take the train.
  • 어제 차가 고장났다. 그래서 할 수 없이 집에까지 걸어갔다. 
    => The car broke down yesterday. Therefore I had no choice but to walk home.


  • 도와 드리고는 싶지만 지금은 너무 바빠서 할 수 없겠어요. 
    => I would like to help you, but I am so busy that I cannot.
  • 신혼여행을 못 가도 할 수 없어요. 
    => If we are not able to go on a honeymoon, we cannot help it.

6.  V. + 게 되다

=> "it turns out that," "it happens that," "it becomes that"

This expression indicates that an action or an event takes place without the actor's or subject's volition. It is often preceded by an explanatory or causal clause -(어/아)서, -기 때문에, as shown in the examples:

  • 직행 표가 매진 돼서 부산을 경유해서 제주도에 가게 됐다. 
    => Since the nonstop tickets were sold out, it turned out that we had to go to Cheju via Pusan. 
  • 제주도에 갔다가 소피를 만나게 됐다. 
    => I happened to meet Sophie while in Cheju.
  • 친구를 통해 샨메이를 알게 됐다. 
    => I've gotten to know Shanmei through a friend.
  • 잃어버린 지갑을 찾게 됐다. 
    => I have gotten my purse back.
  • 돈을 빌려 차를 사게 됐다. 
    => It turned out that I can borrow money and buy a car.
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