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제 14 과
설날

 
문형과 문법
( Patterns and Grammar Notes )

1. 

V. + ㄹ/을 것

=> "one should/must (do)"

This ending is used for writing memos, short instructions, and to-do lists. It indicates an order or an imperative voice.

  • 오늘 방 청소 할 것 
    => Clean my room today.
  • 10 시에 한국에 전화할 것 
    => Call Korea at ten o'clock.
  • 내일 수업에 지각하지 말 것 
    => Don't be late to class tomorrow.
  • 기말시험에 계산기 갖고 올 것 
    => Bring a calculator to the final exam.


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2.  V. + (어/아) 버리다
=> "to end up doing . . . ," "to do . . . (completely)"

Attached to the main verb, this helping verb is used for emphasis. It indicates that an action was "completely" finished or that the subject "ended up doing" it. There are a number of helping verbs that indicate modals and aspects as shown in the chart in item 7 below.

  • 아무도 안 먹어서 내가 밥 한 그릇을 다 먹어 버렸다. 
    => Because no one ate any rice, I ended up eating the whole bowl.
  • 재미있어서 책을 다 읽어 버렸다. 
    => Because the book was so good, I finished it up.
  • 전화요금이 너무 비싸서 전화를 끊어 버렸다. 
    => Because the bill was too high, I cancelled telephone service.


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3.   A.V. + ㄹ/을 만하다

=> "it is worth doing," "it is doable," "to be deserving"

 
  • 한국어는 배울 만하니? 
    => Is Korean learnable?/Can you learn Korean?
  • 그 소설은 읽을 만해. 
    => The fiction is worth reading.
  • 요즘 볼 만한 영화가 뭐 있을까? 
    => Which movies are worth watching nowadays?
  • 그 학생은 상을 받을 만 하다. 
    => The student deserves an award.


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4.  N. + (이)랑
=> "and," "with"

This colloquial and dialectal expression for "together with," "and," or "with" appears after nouns. Similar expressions are -와/과, used more in writing, and -하고, used more colloquially.

  • 언니랑 동생이랑 친척집에 놀러 갔어요. 
    => I went with my sisters to visit my relatives.
  • 나랑 같이 놀자. 
    => Play with me.
  • 집에 사과랑 배랑 많다. 
    => We have lots of apples and pears at home.


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5.  Plural marker -들 

Korean nouns, unlike English nouns, do not always require that their number be marked. When appropriate, however, -들 can be attached to adverbs and some connectives to indicate the plurality of the subject noun.

  • 재미있게들 놀아라. 
    => Have a good time!
  • 제주도에 신혼 여행을 많이들 가요. 
    => Many people go to Cheju Island on their honeymoon.
  • 그 음식을 별로들 좋아하지 않아요. 
    => Not many people like the dish.
  • 여기서들 기다리세요. 
    => Please (you all) wait here. 
  • 의논을 하고들 나갔어요. 
    => After discussing (something), they left.
  • 오겠다고들 하지만 올 지 모르겠어요. 
    => They say they'll come, but I am not sure if they will.
  • 노래를 부르면서들 지나갔어요. 
    => They passed by (us) singing.


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6.  Epenthetic ㅅ: 사잇 시옷
=> "-'s," "of"

Many compound nouns (two nouns put together) take ㅅ after the first noun indicating their possessive (genitive) relationship, much like "of" or "'s" in English.

동짓날 from 동지 + ㅅ + 날 winter solstice + 's + day 

  • 빗물 
    => rainwater 
  • 햇빛 
    => sunshine 
  • 빗방울 
    => raindrop 
  • 바닷가
    =>  seashore 
  • 촛불 
    => candlelight
  • 기찻길 
    => train track

Not all compound nouns in a possessive (genitive) relationship take ㅅ.

  • 머리말 
    => preface (not 머릿말) 
  • 낚시터 
    => fishing place
  • 담배벌레 
    => tobacco hornworm 


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7.  Causative verbs chart

This pattern indicates a repeated action. It means "from time to time" or "now and then" when it ends in the present tense, and it means "used to" when it ends in the past tense.

Examples
Main
Verb
Verb
Base
Helping
Verb
Aspects Gloss
A.V. 어/아 버리다 completion 읽어 버리다 to finish reading
먹어 버리다 to finish eating
A.V. 어/아 내다 willful action 받아 내다 to end up collecting
먹어 밀어내다 to push off and drive out
A.V. 어/아 나다 spontaneous 일어 나다  to get up
살아 나다  to come alive
A.V. 어/아 주다 benefactive 
(for someone)
봐 주다 to watch for
사 주다 to buy for
드리다   도와 드리다  to help someone (HON.)
A.V. 어/아 보다 experience 입어 보다  to try on (clothes)
써 보다  to try writing 
A.V. 어/아 대다 repetition 웃어 대다 to keep laughing 
졸라 대다 to keep begging
A.V. 어/아 두다 accumulation 써 두다  to write and keep
모아 두다  to gather and keep
A.V. 어/아 넣다 placing into 접어 넣다 to fold and put away
사 넣다  to buy and put away
A.V. 어/아 놓다 placing/keeping 넣어 놓다  to place into/put away
사 놓다 to buy and keep
A.V. 어/아 가지다 possession 집어 가지다 to pick up and keep 
사 가지다 to buy and keep
D.V. 
&  A.V.
 (some)
어/아 지다 change of state 
automatically / by itself
커지다 to grow big 
젊어지다 to get younger
써지다 to be written
열려지다 to open by itself
A.V. 어/아 가다1 "take" 가져 가다  to take (away from speaker)
사 가다 to buy and take
A.V. 어/아 오다 "bring" 가져 오다 to bring (to speaker)
잡아 오다 to catch and bring
싸 오다 to wrap and bring 
A.V. 어/아 가다2 "is about to" 다해 가다 to be almost done
끝나 가다 to be about to finish
A.V. 어/아 있다 "in the state of" 
(sitting, placed)
앉아 있다 is sitting (position)
놓여 있다 is placed 
A.V. 있다 continuation 가고 있다 is going 
알고 있다 know (already)
A.V. 싶다 wish 보고 싶다  want to see 
놀고 싶다 want to play
D.V. 
&  A.V.
하다 "cause to" 밝게 하다 to make it bright
만들다 오게 만들다 to make (him/her) come
D.V. ㄴ/은가  보다/ supposition / 
guessing

 

추운가 보다. I think it's cold.
싶다 춥지 않은가 싶다. I think it may be cold.
A.V. 는가 보다/
싶다
비가 오는가 보다. It seems to be raining.
   
ㄹ/을까 싶다 비가 올까 싶다.  (I'm afraid) it may rain.
나  보다 비가 오나 보다.  It seems to be raining.
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