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제 15 과
노래 자랑

문형과 문법
( Patterns and Grammar Notes )


1.  Nominalization with -기 versus -ㅁ/음 (and  -는 것)

To make a noun from a verb, -기 or -ㅁ/음 is used with different restrictions. Although -기 is attached directly to a verb stem and indicates the act of doing, -ㅁ/음 is attached to a verb stem or its tense marker to indicate the fact of doing or the state of being. -기 is often used, but -ㅁ/음 is limited in use. Their different uses are shown in the following examples:

동사 -ㅁ/음


(신) 벗다 to take off 신 벗음 shoes off 신 벗기 to take off/taking off shoes
*방에서 신 벗음 Shoes off in the room 방에서 신 벗기 Taking off in a room 
믿다 to believe 믿음 faith 믿기 to believe
믿음이 필요하다.  (We) need a faith.   그것은 믿기 힘들다. That is hard to believe.
모이다 to gather 모임 meeting 모이기 to meet or gather
다음 모임이 언제예요?  When is the next meeting?   다 모이기가 어렵다. It's difficult to gather everyone.
to be young
( to get young)
젊음 youth 젊어지기 to get young
젊음을 부러워 하다. They envy youth.  젊어지기 위해서 운동을 한다. (He) exercises to be young.

* Although 신 벗음 is a verbal noun, the rest of the nouns in the examples―잠, 믿음, 모임, and 젊음―are "frozen" nouns, which have entered dictionary as regular nouns.

a. A.V. + 기 indicates an action or "doing." It also indicates the process or the method of the act. It is often used with verbs like 좋다, 재미있다, 싫다, 나쁘다, 쉽다, 어렵다, 편하다, or 불편하다. 

  • 읽기 reading 

    한글은 읽기 쉬워요. 
    => It's easy to read hangul.
  • 벗기 taking off 

    이 신은 벗기 어려워요. 
    => These shoes are difficult to take off.
  • 타기 taking/riding 

    여기에서 버스가 타기 좋아요. 
    => It's convenient/nice to take a bus here. 

The verbal nouns with -기 can be changed to the -는 것 clause, but the meaning may also change. -는 것 indicates the fact of doing/being something. 

  • 한글은 읽는 것이 쉬워요. 
    => It is easy to read hangul.
  • 이 신은 신는 것이 어려워요. 
    => These shoes are difficult to put on. 
  • 버스 타는 것이 좋아요. 
    => I like/enjoy riding a bus / it is better to take a bus. 

b. V. + ㅁ/음 indicates an abstraction of the verb from which the verbal noun is derived. In addition to making a verbal noun, this form is used in a note or in a cryptic statement, as in these examples: 

  • 오늘 수업시간에 제 15 과를 배웠음. 
    => Today I/we learned Lesson 15.
  • 내일 아침 왕 선생님이 동경으로 출발하심.
    =>  Mr./Ms. Wang leaves for Tokyo tomorrow morning.

Some ㅁ/음 verbal nouns are "frozen" as permanent nouns, as in 웃음 "laugh," 울음 "cry," 기쁨 "joy," 슬픔 "sadness," 춤 "dance," 잠 "sleep," 꿈 "dream," 도움 "help," and 어둠 "darkness." When a frozen noun ends with its verbal noun, we have sentences like these examples, usually written in journal notes:

  • 10시에 잠을 잠. 
    => (I) went to bed at ten o'clock. 
  • 학교에서 두 시간 그림을 그림. 
    => (I) paint two hours at school.

2.  V. + (어/아) 가지고
=> "having done. . . ," "after doing . . ." 

This colloquial expression of "having done something" is similar to -ㄴ/은 후에 or -(어/아)서. 

  • 은행에서 돈을 찾아 가지고 나가겠어요. 
    => After withdrawing money from the bank, I will go out.
  • 한국어를 배워 가지고 한국 회사에 취직하겠어요. 
    => After learning Korean, I will get a job in a Korean company.
  • 공부를 해 가지고 와. 
    => Come after you study.

3.  V. + ㄹ/을 때마다

=> "whenever," "every time"

Regardless of the tense, ㄹ/을 always precedes 때마다. 

  • 시간이 있을 때마다 노래 연습을 해요. 
    => Whenever I have time, I practice singing.
  • 한국에 갈 때마다 선물을 사 가지고 갔어요. 
    => Whenever I went to Korea, I took gifts.
  • 할아버지께서는 세배 할 때마다 세배 돈을 주세요. 
    => Every time I bow on New Year's Day, grandpa gives me money.
  • 시장에 갈 때마다 과일을 사요. 
    => Whenever I go to the grocery store, I buy fruit.

4.  Making passive verbs with 이, 히, 리, and 기

About 150 transitive verbs (which require a direct object) are made into their passive form using the four suffixes 이, 히, 리, and 기. Some of the most frequently used of these verbs are presented in the passive verbs chart below. Note that another way of making a passive statement is using the A.V. + (어/아)지다 construction discussed in L5, GN3.

Passive verbs chart

보다  to see 보이다 to be seen
나누다  to divide 나뉘다  to be divided
덮다  to cover 덮이다  to be covered
섞다  to mix 섞이다  to be mixed
쌓다  to pile 쌓이다  to be piled
치다  to run over 치(이)다  to be run over

뽑다  to select 뽑히다  to be selected
잡다  to catch 잡히다  to be caught 
박다  to peg 박히다  to be pegged
닫다  to close 닫히다  to be closed 
밟다  to step on 밟히다  to be stepped on
씹다  to chew 씹히다  to be chewed
읽다  to read 읽히다  to be read

끌다  to pull 끌리다  to be pulled
듣다  to listen 들리다  to be heard
밀다  to push 밀리다  to be pushed
열다  to open 열리다  to be open
누르다 to press down 눌리다  to be pressed
씹다  to chew 씹히다  to be chewed
읽다  to read 읽히다  to be read

감다  to wind 감기다  to be wound
끊다  to cut 끊기다  to be cut
빼앗다  to deprive 빼앗기다  to be deprived
안다  to hold 안기다  to be held (in the arms)
쫓다  to chase 쫓기다  to be chased 

Note that these suffixes overlap wih the causatives in some verbs. (See L17, GN3 and GN7.)

5. A.V. + ㄹ/을 줄 알다

=> "to know," "to know how"

A.V. + ㄹ/을 줄 모르다

=> "not to know," "not to know how"

This expression is used to indicate "knowing or not knowing how to do things." 

  • 피아노를 칠 줄 아세요? 
    => Do you know how to play piano?
  • 한국어 책을 읽을 줄 압니다. 
    => I know how to read Korean books.
  • 컴퓨터 고칠 줄 알아? 
    => Don't you know how to fix a computer?

6.  N. + 못지 않게
=>"as good/well as," "(even) better/more than"

This construction indicates that the subject noun is as good as (or better than) or does as well as (or better than) the noun it is compared with. The noun followed by 못지 않게 is the noun it is compared with. (See also -만큼 in L9, GN2.) 

  • 이 포도주는 선전 못지 않게 맛도 좋다. 
    => This wine is as good as the ads say (maybe even better).
  • 디에고는 한국 사람 못지 않게 한국말을 잘한다. 
    => Diego can speak Korean as well as a Korean does.
  • 진 선생님 못지 않게 손 선생님도 인기가 있었다. 
    => Mr./Ms. Sohn was as popular as Mr./Ms. Chin.
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