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문형과 문법
( Patterns and Grammar Notes )


A.V. + 느니 (차라리)

=> "(I) would rather," "it is better to . . ."

-느니 is often used with 차라리 for emphasis. It is also often followed by -는게 낫다 to mean that something is preferable to something else, as in, "It is better to do . . . than . . ." 차라리 adds emphasis to "rather."

  • 시장에 가서 사느니 비싸지만 백화점에서 사야겠다. 
    => I'd rather buy it at a department store than in a market even though it will be more expensive.
  • 가까운 곳은 운전하느니 (차라리) 걷는 게 낫다. 
    => I would rather walk than drive if it's close.
  • 토요일에 집에 있느니 일 가겠다. 
    => I'd go to work rather than stay home on Saturday.

These are two popular sayings using 느니:

  • 앓느니 죽는다. 
    => I would rather die than be sick (to suffer from illness).
  • 시키느니 내가 한다. 
    => I would rather do it myself than have someone else do it.

2.  N. + 와/과(는) 달리
=> "unlike," "different from"
V. + ㄴ/은/는 것과(는) 달리

=> "being unlike," "different from that"

  • 민수와(는) 달리 지수는 혼자 있기를 좋아한다. 
    => Unlike Min-su, Chi-su likes to be alone.
  • 듣던 것과 달리 그 선생님은 좋은 분이다. 
    => Unlike what I used to hear, he is a good teacher.
  • 선전과는 달리 그 물건은 전혀 싸지 않았다. 
    => Unlike what the ads said, the items were not cheap at all.

Note that some Korean verbs use -와/과 or -하고 in the English sense of "from," "with," or "to" or as a direct object, as in the following verbs: 


  • 오렌지는 귤과 다르다. 오렌지는 귤하고 다르다.
    => An orange is different from a mandarin.


  • A는 B와 같다. 
    => A equals B (A = B).


  • 이태리는 한국과/하고 지형이 비슷하다. 
    => Italy is geographically similar to Korea.


  • 이사벨라는 로벨토와 결혼한다. 
    => Isabella will marry Roberto.


  • 이사벨라는 로벨토와 약혼했다. 
    => Isabella is engaged to Roberto.


  • 짐은 수잔하고 사귄다. 
    => Jim goes out with Susan.


  • 남한이 북한과 싸웠다. 
    => South Korea fought against North Korea.
  • 남한과 북한이 싸웠다. 
    => South Korea and North Korea fought.


  • 선생님과 만났다.(or 선생님을 만났다.) 
    => I met with my teacher.

3.   -말이에요 as a question and a statement
=> "do you mean . . . ?," "I mean"

This ending is used colloquially. The intonation of this sentence ending tells whether the sentence is a question (rising) or a statement (level or falling). Usually, -(이)라는 말이에요 is shortened to -(이)란 말이에요, and -다는 말이에요 is shortened to -단 말이에요.

a.  N. + (이)라는 말이에요?
=> "Do you mean that it is . . . ?"
V. + 다는 말이에요?
=> "Do you mean that . . . ?"
b. N. + 말이에요.
=> "I mean . . ."
N. + (이)라는 말이에요.
=> "I mean that it is . . . ," "I am saying that it is . . ."
V. + 다는 말이에요.
=> "I mean that . . . ," "I am saying . . ."


  • 그 강의실 말이에요? 
    => Do you mean the classroom? 
  • 그 사람이 외국인이란/이라는 말이에요? 
    => Do you mean that he's a foreigner?
  • 늦잠을 잤다는 말이에요? 
    => Do you mean that you slept late?
  • 유럽에 가 봤단/봤다는 말이에요? 
    => Do you mean that you've been to Europe?


  • 이것 말이에요. 
    => I mean this one.
  • 저 사람이 바로 어제 만난 그 사람이란/이라는 말이에요. 
    => I'm saying that he is the very person I met yesterday. 
  • 제가 안 그랬단/그랬다는 말이에요. 
    => I mean that I didn't do/say that.

4.  A.V. + 는 바람에 
=> "as the result of," "because of"

Literally, this idiomatic expression says "in the midst of the (whirl) wind," meaning "because / as a result (of a confusion)." It is usually used in a negative context. 

  • 늦게 도착하는 바람에 개학식에 못 갔다. 
    => I couldn't go to the school orientation because of my arriving late. 
  • 아이들이 떠드는 바람에 깼다. 
    => Because the children were being loud, I woke up.
  • 어제 밤에 큰 소리가 나는 바람에 깼다. 
    => I woke up last night because there was a loud noise.

5.  Many uses of -대로

These constructions have various meanings, depending on the context.

a. N. + 대로
=> "as is," "as (someone) does/says"


V. + ㄴ/은/는/ㄹ/을 대로
=> "as is," "as (someone) does/says"


A.V. + 는 대로
=> "as soon as"


  • 이대로 쓰세요. 
    => Please write like this. / Please copy this.
  • 나는 나대로 갈게. 
    => I'll go on my own/separately.
  • 선생님 마음대로 정하세요. 
    => Please choose as you like. 


  • 요리책에 쓰인 대로 김치 담그세요. 
    => Please make kimchi as the cookbook says.
  • 아이들은 보는 대로 따라한다. 
    => Children imitate what they see.
  • 형이 시키는 대로 해라. 
    => Do as your older brother tells you.


  • 서울에 가는 대로 편지할게. 
    => I'll write to you as soon as I go to Seoul.
  • 옷을 갈아입는 대로 나가자. 
    => Let's go out as soon as you change.
  • 팩스를 받는 대로 알려 주십시오. 
    => Please let me know as soon as you get the FAX

6.  그대로
=> "as (it) is," "the way (it) is"

This expression means "the way it is" or "the way it has been" and is frequently used in a request or a command. (See L16, GN5 for the -대로 connective.)

  • 그대로 두세요. 
    => Please leave it alone.
  • 그대로 오세요. 
    => Please come as you are.
  • 그대로 쓰세요. 
    => Please use it as it is. / Please keep writing in the same way you have been.

7.  A. V. + 곤 하다
=> "from time to time, it does," "now and then"
A.V. + 곤 했다
=> "used to"

This pattern indicates a repeated action. It means "from time to time" or "now and then" when it ends in the present tense, and it means "used to" when it ends in the past tense.

  • 캘리포니아에서는 가끔 지진이 나서 사람들을 놀라게 하곤 한다. 
    => From time to time in California, there is an earthquake and it shocks people.
  • 친구가 가끔 들르곤 한다. 
    => My friend stops by now and then. 
  • 남들 따라서 외국 풍습에 잘 휩쓸리곤 했다. 
    => I used to follow foreign custom blindly.
  • 밤이면 아기가 울곤 했다. 
    => The baby used to cry at night.
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