A.V. + ㄹ/을 겸
=> "while doing . . ."
This construction indicates that the second action has a dual purpose. Taking advantage of the situation, you do one thing while doing something else at the same time.
- 선생님도 뵐 겸 학교에 갔다.
=> I went to school and at the same time visited my teacher.
- 친구도 사귈 겸 한국 학생회에 나갔다.
=> I went to attend the Korean students' meeting and also to make friends (there).
- 점심도 먹을 겸 집에 갔다.
=> I went home and also had lunch.
|| V. + 더니
|=> "and then," "since," ”but"
| V. + 었/았더니
=> "since," "because," "so," "as," "when"
-더니 is not used with I or we. This restriction does not apply to -었/았더니.
- 수잔이 한국에 가더니 소식이 없네.
=> Since Susan went to Korea, there has been no news.
- 인류학을 공부하더니 지금은 사회학을 공부한다.
=> She was studying anthropology, and now he has changed to sociology.
- 아침 일찍 학교에 갔더니 교실이 텅 비어 있었다.
=> Because I went to school early in the morning, the classroom was completely empty.
- 전화를 했더니 친구는 벌써 나가고 없었다.
=> I called a friend, but he was already out.
- 밥을 많이 먹었더니 배가 아프다.
=> I ate too much and have a stomachache.
- 우리가 공부를 열심히 했더니 시험을 잘 봤어요.
=> Because we studied hard, we did well on the test.
Note that the subjects of the -었/았더니 connective are usually not the same. For example, 톰은 책방에 갔더니 책을 샀다 is not correct, but 톰은 책방에 가더니 책을 샀다 or 톰이 책방에 갔더니 민수가 와 있었다 is fine.
V. + (어/아)서 그런지
=> "maybe because," "it could be because"
This expression indicates the speaker's conjecture or reasoning.
- 바빠서 그런지 죤은 무술에 관심 이 없다.
=> Maybe because he is busy, John is not interested in the martial arts.
- 잠을 못 자서 그런지 머리가 아프다.
=> It could be that because I didn't sleep, I have a headache.
- 학생이 많이 늘었다. 그래서 그런지 갑자기 교실이 모자란다.
=> The number of students has increased. Maybe that's why there aren't enough classrooms.
|| V. + 기는 V. + 지만
|=> "it is true that . . . but"
|| N. + (이)기는 하지만
|=> "it is true that . . . but," "although it is . . ."
This construction indicates that the speaker recognizes the fact.
- 비행기가 빠르기는 하지만 비싸다.
=> It is true that airplanes are fast, but they are expensive.
- 데이비드가 요리를 맛있게 하기는 하지만 시간이 없어서 잘 하지 않는다.
=> It is true that David is a good cook, but he doesn't cook because he doesn't have time.
- 전통 무술이기는 하지만 잘 몰라요.
=> It is a traditional martial art, but I don't know it well.
- 좋은 선물이기는 하지만 저는 못 받겠어요.
=> Although it is a nice gift, I cannot accept it.
There is no equivalent expression in English for 뭐. It is a colloquial sentence-ending expression meaning something like "what else?" in 나 학교에 갔지 뭐 "I went to school, what else?" or "I went to school, you know." It is used only in intimate and informal conversation and follows the -지(요) or -나(요) sentence ending.
- 일종의 스포츠로 하는 거지 뭐.
=> They are doing it as a kind of sport, nothing more.
- 오늘 안 오려나 보지 뭐.
=> I guess he's not coming today, you know.
- 학교에나 가지요 뭐.
=> I'll just go to school, nowhere else.
- 제가 어디 가나요 뭐.
=> I don't go anywhere, you know.
||V. + 거든(요)
|=> "you know"
This intimate or polite sentence ending says something like "you know," as in "I saw the movie, you know."
- 무술은 건강에 좋거든.
=> You know, martial arts are good for your health.
- 내일은 휴일이거든.
=> Tomorrow is a holiday, you know.
- 꼬마 동생 정엽이가 숙제를 찢었거든요.
=> My baby sister Jung-yup ripped my homework, you know.