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제 19 과
음악 공연 예약

문형과 문법
( Patterns and Grammar Notes )



Verbs for involuntary action: 들다, 걸리다, and 나다

Many body-related functions are treated as involuntary or noncontrollable acts and are expressed by 들다 "come under," 나다 "arise," or 걸리다 "be caught."  

들다 나다


잠이 들다 열이 나다 감기에 걸리다
 to fall asleep to have a fever to catch a cold
감기가 들다 병이 나다 병에 걸리다
to catch a cold to get sick to get sick
병이 들다 화가 나다 순경에게 걸리다
to get sick to get upset to be caught by a cop
물이 들다 땀이 나다  
to be influenced 
(literally, to be colored)
 to perspire  

2.  Question ending  -다지요?
=> "isn't it . . . ?"

As an indirect question ending, -다지요 expresses something close to "don't I hear/don't they say . . . ?," as in 지금 뉴욕에 비가 온다지요? "Don't they say it's raining now in New York City?" 



V. + 다지(요)?

=> "don't/didn't I hear . . . ?"
V. + 었/았다지(요)?
=> "don't/didn't I hear . . . ?"


N. + (이)라지(요)?

=> "don't/didn't I hear that it's . . . ?"
N. + (이)었다지(요)?
=> "don't/didn't I hear that it was . . . ?"


  • 그 분은 오페라를 좋아한다지요? 
    => Don't they say that he likes opera?
  • 너는 벌써 표를 샀다지? 
    => Didn't I hear you bought the ticket already?
  • 그 분이 대통령에 당선됐다지? 
    => Didn't I hear that he was elected president?
  • 내일이 독립 기념일이라지요? 
    => Don't they say it's Independence Day tomorrow?
  • 은주가 오페라 팬이라지요? 
    => Don't I hear Eun-ju is an opera fan?
  • 그 책이 인기였다지요? 
    => Didn't I hear that the book was popular?

3.  A.V. + ㄹ/을 걸 그랬다

=> "should have . . ."

This short form of -ㄹ/을 것을 그랬다 indicates mild regret, as in "I should have done . . ."

  • 같이 가자고 할 걸 그랬다. 
    => I should have asked her/him to go with me.
  • 점심을 미리 먹을 걸 그랬다. 
    => I should have eaten lunch earlier.
  • 떡국을 끓일 걸 그랬다. 
    => I should have cooked (boiled) the rice-cake soup.

4.  V. + (어/아) 봤자/보았자

=> "even if (I try) doing . . . ," "even if (something) is . . ."

This connective indicates the speaker's supposition of the fact or the event. 

  • 지금 후회해 봤자 소용없어. 
    => Even if you are remorseful, it its of no use. / There is no point in being remorseful now.
  • 뛰어 봤자 버스를 잡기는 힘들걸. 
    => It'll be hard to catch the bus even if you run. 
  • 누구에게 의논해 보았자 다른 좋은 수가 없을 것 같다. 
    => Even if you discuss it with someone, there won't be any good solution.
  • 사람이 키가 커 봤자 7 피트도 안 될 거다. 
    => Even if a man is tall, he is probably less than seven feet. 

5.  A.V. + (으)나 마나

=> "no use," "no point doing," "not worth doing"

This pattern indicates a futile attempt or uselessness, meaning literally "whether to do it or not."

  • 가나 마나 우리는 늦어서 그 영화는 못 봐.
    => There is no use going; we can't see the movie because we're late. 
  • 그 약은 먹으나 마나였다. 
    => The medicine was no use. It didn't help.
  • 경주에게 말해보나 마나 안 간다고 할 거야.
    => There is no point asking Kyungju; she'll say she won't go.

6.  A.V. + ㄹ/을 지경이다

=> "to/at the point of . . . ," "almost," "nearly"

This expression is often preceded by a verb of hardship, such as 포기하다, 쓰러지다, 죽다, 울다, 꺾어지다, or 넘어 지다. 

  • 시험이 너무 어려워 울 지경이었다. 
    => The exam was so difficult that I almost cried.
  • 피곤해서 쓰러질 지경이다. 
    => I am so tired that I'm about to collapse.
  • 목이 말라서 죽을 지경이었다. 
    => I almost died of thirst.
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