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제 20 과
조선족 학생과의 만남

 
문형과 문법
( Patterns and Grammar Notes )
 
1.  Indirect speech: formal short forms

=> "they say . . . ," "someone says . . ."

Below are the short forms of formal indirect speech endings. (For the informal short endings -대요, -(이)래요, -(으)래요, -냬요, and -재요, see L9, GN5.)


a. Statement   V. + 답니다

=> "they say"

Statement   N. + (이)랍니다

=> "they say that it is"

b. Command   V. + (으)랍니다

=> "they tell/ask/order"

c. Question   V. + 냡니다

=> "they ask/say"

d. "Let's"   V. + 잡니다

=> "they ask/invite to do"


(a)

  • 만철이는 중국에 사는 조선족이랍니다. 
    => (They say) Manchŭl is a Korean who lives in China.
  • 그 분은 운동선수랍니다. 
    => (They say that) he is an athlete.
(b)
  • 전화를 받으랍니다. 
    => (They tell you) to answer the phone.
  • 전화를 받아 달랍니다. 
    => (They ask you) to answer the phone (for someone).

(c)

  • 내일 바쁘냡니다.
    => (They ask) whether you are busy tomorrow.

(d)

  • 내일 백화점에 같이 가잡니다.
    => (They invite you) to go to the department store with them tomorrow.


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2.  Adverb with negative 

Certain adverbs are followed by a negative, such as 안 or 못, or a negative ending, such as 없다, 아니다, -지 않다, -지 못 하다, -지 말다, 모르다, or 마세요. Some examples of these follow: 

 
전혀 집에서는 전혀 운동을 할 기회가 없다. 
completely, never at all  I have no time to exercise at home.
도무지 서울의 길을 도무지 모르겠다. 
not at all  I don't know the streets of Seoul at all.
카렌한테서 영 소식이 없다. 
not at all, none  There is no news at all from Karen.
결코 우리는 결코 일을 못 끝내겠다. 
by no means, never  By no means will we be able to finish the job.
꼼짝 꼼짝 말고 있어! (See L6, GN3.)
not even a tiny bit 
(of motion) 
Stay still!/Don't move! 
도저히 나는 도저히 여덟 시까지 못 가요.
not possibly  I can't possibly make it by eight o'clock. 
좀처럼 고등학교 친구들을 좀처럼 못 만나요.
hardly, not often  I hardly see my high school friends.
요즘 시내에 통 안 나갔어요.
at all Lately, I haven't been to the city at all.
그리 금강산은 남한에서 그리 멀지 않다.
not so (much, long, 
big, good, or the like) 
The Kŭmgang Mountains are not so far from South Korea.
과히 그 일은 과히 어렵지 않아요.
not very  The work is not very difficult. 
별로 어제는 별로 바쁘지 않았어요. 
not especially  I was not especially busy yesterday. 
절대로 비밀을 절대로 말하지 마세요.
never, ever  Never talk about our secret.


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3.  V. + 다 보니

=> "while (doing/being)," "as . . . (is doing)," "as," "since"

This pattern indicates that one becomes aware that while something is happening, something else has also happened. The pattern can also indicate the cause for the next action or event. 

  • 자다 보니 기차가 뉴욕에 도착했다. 
    => (I woke up and became aware that) while I slept, the train had arrived in New York City. 
  • 친구와 얘기하면서 걷다 보니 벌써 학교에 왔다. 
    => (I realized that) we'd already arrived at the school as we walked while talking. 
  • 값이 비싸다 보니 아무도 사가는 사람이 없다. 
    => As the price was so high, nobody was buying it.
  • 날씨가 나쁘다 보니 모임에 사람이 아무도 안 나왔다. 
    => Nobody came to the meeting since the weather has been bad.


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4.  V. + ㄹ/을 정도로

=> "(so) . . . to the extent that," "(so) . . . to the point that"

This pattern expresses a hypothetical or real degree, limit, or extent of the performance, action, or behavior.  

  • 일어나지도 못 할 정도로 피곤하다. 
    => I am so tired (to the point) that I can't get up. 
  • 숨을 쉬지도 못 할 정도로 많이 먹었다. 
    => I ate so much (to the extent) that I can't breathe.
  • 걸어다니기가 힘들 정도로 비가 많이 왔다. 
    => It rained so much that it was difficult to walk around.


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5.  V. + 었/았었다

=> "it has/had been," "it has/had had" (double past)

This construction means that something has/had happened or has/had not happened at a specific moment in the past. The simple past tense 었/았 indicates the completion of an action or an action in the past. If an action is completed, it is in the past tense, as in 앉았다, which means "I sat down" (but it may also mean "I am in a sitting position"). The double past tense marker 었/았었 indicates either an action that was completed in the past (and then some other action came after it) or a simple experience, as in the following examples: 

  • 무슨 소린지 몰라서 어리둥절했었어요. 
    => Without knowing what it meant, I was confused (but not anymore). 
  • 이모 이름을 잊었었다. 그런데 지금은 생각이 난다. 
    => I had forgotten my aunt's name. But now I remember.
  • 내가 한국에 가기 전에 손 교수님을 한번 만났었다. 
    => Before I went to Korea, I had met Professor Sohn once. 
  • 그날은 날씨가 무척 추웠었다. 
    => It was/had been so cold that day. 
  • 하루꼬가 뉴욕에 갔었다. 
    => Haruko has been to New York. 


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6.  Many uses of 마찬가지

=> "same thing," "similar thing"

This term has many possible combinations with connectives, sentence endings, verbal modifiers, and particles, as shown in these examples: 

 
마찬가지다 It is the same (thing).
마찬가지냐?  Is it the same?
마찬가지로  similarly, in the same manner, same as
마찬가지의  the same kind of
마찬가지면 if it's the same
마찬가지지만 although it's the same
  • 초등 학생들도 대학생과 마찬가지로 컴퓨터가 없으면 안 된다. 
    => Like college students, students in elementary school must have/can't do without computers. 
  • 가나 안 가나 마찬가지지만 가겠다. 
    => Whether I go or not is all the same to me, but I'll go.
  • 버스나 값이 마찬가지면 기차로 가자. 
    => If the fare is the same as the bus, let's take the train. 

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7.  a.  N. + 덕택에 or 덕분에

=> "thanks to (you) . . ." 

b. V. + ㄴ/은/는 덕택에 or 덕분에

=> "due to (your) generosity," " thanks to you"

This polite acknowledgment of a favor or generosity is another way of saying "thank you." It is used liberally even when there is no favor or generosity received, as in 덕택에 잘 지냅니다 in response to 요즘 어떠세요?

(a)

  • 구 선생님, 덕택에 한국어를 많이 배웠어요. 
    => Thanks to you, Mr./Ms. Koo, I learned a great deal of Korean.
  • 흥부 덕분에 제비가 목숨을 구했다. 
    => Thanks to Hŭngbu's help, the swallow survived. 

(b)

  • 아버지께서 열심히 일하신 덕분에 저는 대학을 어렵지 않게 다녔어요. 
    => Thanks to my father's hard work, I went to college without hardship.
  • 한국 친구를 사귄 덕택에 유웬은 한국말을 잘 배웠다. 
    => Thanks to having a Korean friend, Yu-wen learned Korean well. 
  • 그곳에 친구가 있는 덕분에 여행을 편하게 했다. 
    => Thanks to my friend who was there, I had a comfortable trip.
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