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제 21 과
전자 제품이 고장나다

문형과 문법
( Patterns and Grammar Notes )


1.  Various uses of  V. + 게 

-게 is used to make an adverb from a descriptive verb, as in 쉽게 "easily," or to connect two verbs to indicate a certain aspect of the sentences, as in -게 되다, -게 하다, -게 마련이다, and -게 시키다. (See L23, GN2 and L25, GN2.)

a.  D.V. + 게

=> "-ly" (adverb)

b. V. + 게 되다

=> "to turn out," "to become," "to get to"

c. V. + 게 하다/만들다

=> "to make (someone) do (something)"

d. V. + 게 마련이다

=> "it's expected," "it's (only) natural"


  • 전자 제품이 다양하게 전시됐다. 
    => Electrical items were displayed variously.
  • 그 아이가 귀엽게 웃는다. 
    => He has a cute smile. (Literally: He smiles cutely.)
  • 공주는 슬프게 울었다. 
    => The princess wept sadly.

Some other examples are 이렇게, 어떻게, 싸게, 반갑게, 무섭게, 급하게, and 못지 않게. 


  • 그 친구를 알게 되었다. 
    => I got to know him/her.
  • 나는 부산에 가게 되었다. 
    => (It turned out that) I went to Pusan. 
  • 아이들을 위해서 그 건물을 세우게 되었다. 
    => (It turned out that) the building will be built for children.


  • 그녀는 사람들을 놀라게 한다. 
    => He/She surprises people.
  • 학생들에게 영어로 대답하게 한다. 
    => I make students respond in Korean.
  • 기다리게 해서 죄송해요. 
    => I am sorry that I made you wait.


  • 이긴 사람이 한 턱 내게 마련이야. 
    => The winner is supposed to treat.
  • 돈이 있으면 쓰게 마련이다. 
    => It's only natural to spend money if one has some.

Note that there is another frequently used -게, which is a colloquial form of -것이 in the ㄴ/는/ㄹ/을 + 것이 or the 이/그/저 + 것이 expression. 

  • 그게 아니에요. 
    => I don't mean that.
  • 할 게 많아요. 
    => I've a great deal to do.
  • 걷는 게 낫다. 
    => It's better to walk.
  • 이것쯤은 알아두는 게 좋아. 
    => It's good to know at least this.
  • 찬 거 마실 게 없어요. 
    => There isn't anything cold to drink.

2.  Supposition, guess, and intention -겠

-겠 not only indicates a future action but also indicates a supposition, guess, or intention. In many cases, it closely resembles -을/를 것이다.  

  • 오후 2시니까 편지가 왔겠다. 
    => Since it's 2:00 P.M., the mail must have arrived. (guess)
  • 나는 내일 미국으로 떠나겠다. 
    => I will leave for the United States tomorrow. (intention)

-겠 is often used with -(으)면 to indicate a wish or a hope, as in -(으)면 좋겠다 "it would be nice if..." or "I wish it would/were..." and in -(으)면 좋았겠다 "it would have been nice if..."

  • 비가 많이 왔으면 좋겠다. 
    => I wish it would rain a lot. 
  • 어댑터가 따라왔으면 좋았겠다. 
    => It would've been nice if an adapter had come with it.
  • 내 차가 고장이 안 났었으면 좋았겠는데. 
    => It would've been nice if my car hadn't broken down.
  • 프린터가 고장이 안 나면 좋겠다. 
    => I wish my printer wouldn't break down.

3.  a.  V. + ㄴ/은/는 셈이다

=> "it is (almost) as though," "I would say..." 

b.  A.V. + ㄹ/을 셈이다

=> "(one) plans to," "(one) intends to" 

-ㄴ/은/는 셈이다 indicates a calculated result and is a colloquial expression. -ㄹ/을 셈이다 indicates an intention or a plan. 


  • 비싸게 산 셈이다. 
    => (It's almost as though) we paid too much.
  • 아파트는 값에 비해 넓은 셈이다. 
    => (I'd say) this apartment is large, considering the price.
  • 매일 학교에 가는 셈이다. 
    => It's almost as though I go to school every day.


  • 나는 오전 중에 돌아 올 셈이었다. 
    => I was planning on coming back before noon.
  • 너 앞으로 어떻게 할 셈이야? 
    => What are you planning to do from now on? 
  • 나를 바보 만들 셈이냐? 
    => Are you going to make a fool of me?

4.  Construction with -다가 
a.  V. + 다가

=> "while doing," "as (something) is going on" 

b.  V. + 었/았다가

=> "while/when," "and then" 

These connectives indicate an interrupted action followed by another action. The actor of both actions is usually the same. There are some exceptions―for example, 비가 오다가 해가 났다 "It was raining, and then the sun came out."  


  • 길을 가다가 친구를 만났어요. 
    => On my way, I met a friend.
  • 이 길로 똑바로 가다가 왼쪽으로 가세요. 
    => Go straight this way, and then go left.


  • 껐다가 다시 켜보면 어떨까요? 
    => How about turning it off and then turning it on?
  • 옷을 입었다가 다른 옷으로 갈아 입었어요. 
    => I wore one set of clothes and then changed into another set. 

5.  V. + 고 말고(요)

=> "of course, . . . will be/do," "it goes without saying"

This sentence ending indicates the speaker's willingness to do or his or her complete agreement with a fact. Itis used in a casual or an intimate context. 

  • 오늘 날씨가 춥고 말고. 
    => It surely is cold today.
  • 미국에 도착하면 편지를 쓰고 말고요. 
    => Of course I'll write to you when I get to the United States.
  • 카를로스군은 사람이 부지런하고 말고. 
    => Carlos surely is a diligent fellow.

6.  A.V. + 도록 하다

=> "to try to make," "to have someone do"

This pattern indicates an effort "to make something happen" or "to have someone do something." 

  • 이틀 내에 고쳐 드리도록 하겠습니다. 
    => I'll try to repair it within two days.
  • 이틀 내에 누가 고쳐 드리도록 하지요. 
    => I'll have someone repair it in two days.
  • 전기를 아껴 쓰도록 하겠습니다. 
    => I'll try to save electricity.
  • 사람들에게 전기를 아껴 쓰도록 하겠습니다. 
    => I'll make people thrifty with electricity.
  • 최신 제품들을 전시하도록 했습니다. 
    => I tried to display the latest products.
  • 사원이 제품들을 전시하도록 했습니다. 
    => I had an employee display the items.
  • 설명서를 다 읽도록 하겠습니다. 
    => I'll try to read all the instructions.
  • 학생들이 설명서를 읽도록 하겠습니다. 
    => I'll try to have the students read the instructions.
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