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제 24 과
미국에서 온 소식

 
문형과 문법
( Patterns and Grammar Notes )
 
1.  Idiomatic use of -에 익다 or -이 익다

=> "to be familiar with"

While 익다 means "to ripen" or "to be well done," its idiomatic use means "to be familiar with" and is used with 낯 "face," 눈 "eye," 귀 "ear," or 손 "hand."

  • 이 노래는 귀에 익다. 
    => This song sounds familiar.
  • 그 사람의 얼굴이 눈에 익다. 
    => His face looks familiar. 
  • 저 남자는 낯이 익은 사람이다. 
    => The man has a familiar face.
  • 일이 손에 익었다. 
    => I am familiar with the work./I'm used to the job.


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2.  V. + 는 둥 마는 둥 (하고)

=> "hurriedly," "haphazardly," "barely," "hardly"

This expression describes the subject's hurried action or motion in doing things incompletely or haphazardly. It is often used with -하고 to connect two sentences, but, colloquially, -하고 is frequently dropped. 

  • 샤워를 하는 둥 마는 둥 (하고) 뛰어 나갔다. 
    => I hurriedly took a shower and ran out.
  • 아침을 먹는 둥 마는 둥 (하고) 학교에 왔다. 
    => I hardly ate breakfast and then came to school.
  • 잠을 자는 둥 마는 둥 (하고) 일어났다. 
    => I had barely slept when I woke up.
  • 약속이 있어서 인사를 하는 둥 마는 둥하고 아저씨 집을 나왔다. 
    => Because I had an appointment, I left my uncle's house in a hurry, barely saying good-bye. 


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3.  N. + 에 따르면

=> "according to," "on the basis of"

This construction is from the verb 따르다 "to follow" and literally means "if (you) follow," but it is translated as "according to" or "based on."

  • 최근 나온 잡지에 따르면 많은 미국인들이 은퇴한 후에 멕시코로 간다. 
    => According to the latest magazine, many Americans move to Mexico after their retirement.
  • 그 연구에 따르면 한국 사람은 오래 사는 사람들 중의 하나라고 하겠다. 
    => On the basis of the research, we can say that Koreans are among those who live long.


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4. Verbs with -하다 and -되다

Sino-Korean nouns are made into verbs usually ending in -하다 or -되다, with each ending having a different meaning. -하다 turns a noun into a transitive action verb; -되다 makes the action verb intransitive/passive or indicates that something is done, happens, or operates "automatically." The descriptive verb endings for the plain present form remain unchanged―for example, 그 분은 언제나 행복하다, not 그 분은 언제나 행복한다.


Descriptive verbs Action verbs
(-하다 only)   (-하다)   (-되다)
복잡하다 to be crowded  공부하다 to study 공부되다
충분하다 to be plenty  건설하다 to build 건설되다
침착하다 to be calm, 
composed 
연구하다 to research  연구되다
행복하다 to be happy  도착하다 to arrive  도착되다
불행하다 to be unhappy 고생하다 to have 
hardship 
고생되다
  • 100원이면 충분해요. 
    => 100 won is enough.
  • 큰 도시는 어느 나라나 복잡해요. 
    => A big city in any country is crowded.
  • 동생이 공부를 열심히 해요. 
    => My younger brother is studying very hard.
  • 아침에 공부가 잘 돼요. 
    => Studies go well in the morning (automatically)./I can study well in the morning. 
  • 제주도에 새 공항을 건설했어요. 
    => We built a new airport on Cheju Island.
  • 그 회사의 도움으로 새 회관이 건설돼요. 
    => The conference hall is being built with company assistance.
  • 암에 대하여/암을 연구해요. 
    => I am doing research on cancer.
  • AIDS가 많이 연구되고 있어요. 
    => A lot of research is being done on AIDS.


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5.  V. + (ㄴ/는)다 하더라도

=> "even if," "although," "no matter (what, who, and so on)"

This connective indicates a hypothetical or factual supposition. 

  • 미국과 지리적으로 가깝다 하더라도 멕시코는 경제적으로 차이가 많이 난다. 
    => Although Mexico is close to the United States, they are quite different economically.
  • 같은 미국에 살고 있다 하더라도 멀리 떨어져 살면 자주 만날 수가 없지요. 
    => Even if we both live in the United States, if we're far apart, we can't see each other often.
  • 한국으로 간다 하더라도 너를 잊지 않을게. 
    => Even if you go to Korea, I'll not forget you.
  • 비타민을 먹는다 하더라도 식사는 잘 해야 돼요. 
    => Even if you take vitamins, you should eat well.


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6.  Animate N. + (들)끼리

=> "among/by themselves" 

Attached to a human or animal noun, this expression indicates exclusiveness in a group activity or

gathering. 

 
우리끼리  "among us," "by ourselves" 
친구끼리(만) "(only) with friends" 
새들끼리 "among the birds by themselves" 
  • 같은 인종들끼리만 모여 산다면 다른 문화를 배울 수 없어요. 
    => If we live only among the same race, we can't learn about other cultures.
  • 플로리다에 가면 노인들끼리 사는 동네가 있다. 
    => If you go to Florida, there is a town where older people live by themselves.
  • 파티에 가서 아는 친구끼리만 놀면 재미없어. 
    => It's no fun to be only with your friends at a party.


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7.  천지차이(라고 생각하다)

=> "(I think) it's a world apart"

There are many four-syllable words of Sino-Korean origin with specific idiomatic meanings. Their literal translation does not always indicate their true meaning. 천지차이(天地差異) means literally "the difference between heaven and earth."  

  • 통일에 대한 남한과 북한의 의견은 천지차이에요. 
    => The opinions of the South and North Koreans on unification are a world apart.
  • 저희 할머니께서는 여자와 남자는 천지차이라고 생각하세요. 
    => My grandmother thinks the difference between men and women is huge.
  • 신세대와 어른들의 생각은 천지차이입니다. 
    => The new generation and the older generation think quite differently.

Some commonly used expressions are these:

  • 일석이조 (一石二鳥) 
    => "one stone two birds"
  • 만장일치 (滿場一致) 
    => "unanimously"
  • 십중팔구 (十中八九) 
    => "eight or nine out of ten," "most likely"
  • 백발백중 (百發百中) 
    => "a hundred hits to a hundred shots"
  • 금시초문 (今時初聞) 
    => "hearing it for the first time"
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