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제 25 과
바보 온달과 평강 공주

문형과 문법
( Patterns and Grammar Notes )

1.  V. + ㄹ/을 때면

=> "when," "whenever," "by the time"

  • 공주가 울 때면 왕은 농담을 했다. 
    => When the princess cried, the king teased her.
  • 진달래꽃이 필 때면 고향을 생각한다. 
    => Whenever azaleas bloom, I think of my hometown.
  • 내년에 다시 만날 때면 너는 대학생이 되어 있겠지? 
    => By the time I see you again, you will be a college student, won't you?

2.  V. + 게 하다

=> "make (someone) do," "cause something to happen" 

This causative construction makes or causes someone to do something or makes something happen. (See L17, GN3 and 7.)

  • 학생들에게 한국어로만 말하게 해요. 
    => I make the students speak only in Korean.
  • 에디슨은 전깃불을 발명해 사람들을 놀라게 했어요. 
    => Edison surprised people by inventing the light bulb.
  • 의사들은 당뇨병 환자에게 사탕을 못 먹게 한다. 
    => Doctors make diabetic patients stop eating candy.

3.  N. + 감

=> "prospective (person noun)" 

감 literally means "material," but when used idiomatically, it means a "prospective" personal position, either a kinship or an occupational position. It comes from the original meaning of "material," as in 이불감, 양복감, 반찬감, and the like.

  • 사윗감 
    => "prospective son-in-law" 
  • 며느릿감 
    => "prospective daughter-in-law"
  • 신랑감 
    => "prospective bridegroom" 
  • 대통령감 
    => "(suitable for) a future president" 

4.   a.  V. + 기는 커녕

=> "far from doing. . . . " 

b.  N. + 은/는 커녕 . . . 도

=> "not even . . . let alone"

  • 다른 남자에게 관심을 보이기는커녕 온달에게 시집간다고 했어요. 
    => Far from showing interest in other men, she said she would marry only Ondal.
  • 아버님은 노하시기는커녕 칭찬해 주셨다. 
    => Far from being angry, my father praised me.
  • 끝마치기는커녕 시작도 안 했다. 
    => Far from finishing it, I haven't even started.


  • 만 원은 커녕 십 원도 없어요. 
    => I have not even 10 won, let alone 10,000 won.
  • 외국어는 커녕 영어도 잘 못해요. 
    => I don't speak even English well, let alone a foreign language.

5.  V. + ㄴ/은/는/ㄹ/을 줄 알았다

=> "expected that," "knew that"

V. + ㄴ/은/는/ㄹ/을 줄 몰랐다

=> "did not expect that," "did not know that" 

This construction in the past tense is used to indicate "did or did not expect something would happen." (Compare with -ㄹ/을 줄 알다 "being capable of" in L15, GN5.) 줄 알았다 is also used to confirm a fact or an event, as in 민우가 일등을 할 줄 알았다 "I knew Min-wu would take first place." 줄 몰랐다 indicates it is contrary to the speaker's expectations. 

  • 신화가 그렇게 재미있는 줄 몰랐어요. 
    => I didn't expect mythology would be so interesting.
  • 밤에 비가 이렇게 많이 온 줄 몰랐어요. 
    => I didn't know it rained so much last night. 
  • 오늘 비가 올 줄 몰랐어요. 
    => I didn't know it would rain today.
  • 시험이 쉬울 줄 알았어요. (그런데 어려웠어요.) 
    => I expected the exam would be easy. (But it was difficult.)

6.  A.V. + ㄴ/은 채(로)

=> "just as it is," "(while) doing," "being in the state of" 

This construction indicates a state or a condition in which an action occurs.  

  • 안경을 쓴 채 목욕탕에 들어갔다. 
    => I got into the bathtub with my glasses on.
  • 차 속에 앉은 채로 3시간을 보냈다. 
    => I spent three hours (while) sitting in the car.
  • 신발을 신은 채로 방에 들어가지 마. 
    => Don't enter the room with shoes on. 
  • 우리 할머니는 신랑 얼굴도 모른 채 결혼했대요. 
    => My grandmother said she got married to the bridegroom without having seen him beforehand. 

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