Unit 1 - Wika, Kultura at Kasaysayan (Language, Culture & History)

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BALARILA (Grammar):


CHART 1:  “ANG”  Subject Markers


The Subject Marker is placed before:                    Singular      Subject        Plural Subject
- a common noun or a proper name        ang___              ang mga___
of a place used as a subject: Manila is far.

- an person’s proper name: Jim, Martha       si___                 sina___

CHART 2:  “ANG”   Subject Pronouns


                        Singular      Subject              Plural Subject
1st Person           ako  (I)                          tayo  (we) (including person addresseD                                                                 kami  (we) (excluding person addressed)
2nd Person          ka (you)                         kayo (you, respect form) or (to you, pl.)
                              Ikaw (you, used in  isolation,
                              such as in: At ikaw? “And you?”             

3rd Person           siya (he, she)                         sila (they)

3rd Person Demonstrative Pronoun
near the speaker              ito                    ang mga ito      ‘this/these’
near the person addressed      iyan                  ang mga iyan      ‘that/those’
far from both             iyon                  ang mga iyon      ‘that/those’

The subject of a Filipino sentence, when it is a noun, is preceeded by a subject marker. When the subject is a pronoun, the subject pronoun is used.

    1. Look at the occurrences of the markers in the sentences below.  Circle the Subject in each of the sentences.

 

For Example/Halimbawa; Pilipino ang guro sa Ekonomiks.  The Economics teacher is Filipino.

  • Manilenyo ang guro sa Ekonomiks.  The Economics teacher hails from Manila.
  • Maganda ang bahay.   The house is beautiful.
  • Matalino ang mga estudyante.  The students are  intelligent.
  • Malayo ang Brasil.  Brazil is far.
  • Kakaiba ang Kalye Lombard.  Lombard Street is unique.
  • Artista si Lea.  Lea is an actress.
  • Mga kaklase ko sina Jeff at Mila.  Jeff and Mila are my classmates.
  • Mga binata si Randy at ang kapatid niya.  Randy and his brother are             bachelors.
  • Aso si Scooby.  Scooby is a dog.
  • Propesor ko si Dr. Tuason.   Dr. Tuason is my professor.
  • Mabait si Edna.
  • Pilipino sila.
  • Malayo iyon.
  • Pilipino-Amerikano ang asawa niya.
  • Maganda ito.
  • Ilokano kami.
  • Tsuper and binata.
  • Mga dormitoryo ang mga iyon.
  • Apartment ito.
  • Malayo ang Riyadh at Dubai.

 

    • THE INTERROGATIVE SENTENCE

 

The particle “BA” transforms a declarative statement into an interrogative. This particle is placed right after the predicate or generally after the first word of the sentence that is not a marker.

     A.  Change the following declarative sentences into the interrogative form:
            Declarative: Pilipino si Matt.               Interrogative:  Pilipino ba si Matt?
(Here, Matt is the Subject,  Pilipino is the Predicate)

            1. Matalino  si David.                           Is David smart?
                        ________________________________________________
            2. Maganda si Gigi.                         Is Gigi pretty?                                                                           _________________________________________________
            3. Mabait sina Nelson.                          Are Nelson and others nice?                                                     ________________________________________________
      4. Katoliko sina Mike and James.      Are Mike and James Catholic?                                                     ________________________________________________
      5. Dalaga si Sheila.             Is Sheila single?                                                         ________________________________________________
      6. Nars ang mga lalaki.               Are the guys nurses?                                                 _________________________________________________
      7. Demokrat ang mga Angelino.          Are the Angelinos democrat?                                               _________________________________________________
      8. Diborsyado ang mga lalaki.               Are the men divorced?                                                     ________________________________________________
      9. Mormon ang mga babae.          Are the women Mormon?                                                       ________________________________________________
      10. Repablikan ang mga aktibista.           Are the activists Republican?
            ________________________________________________

 

III.  THE NEGATIVE SENTENCE

 

“Hindi” is used to negate an affirmative declarative statement. Used alone, it means “No.”  Used in a sentence, it means “not.”   The negative marker “hindi” occurs before the predicate or the subject that it is negating.

     Positive:  Katoliko si Mary.   Mary is Catholic.  (negating the predicate: Catholic)
      Hindi Katoliko si Mary.   Mary is not Catholic.

A. Circle the subject of the sentences below and underline the predicate.  Then, write the sentence in the negative form by negating the predicate:

  • Hudyo sina Angela at Grace. (à Margie and Grace are not Jewish.)

      ___________________________________________________________

  • Binata si David.             (à David is not a bachelor. )

      ___________________________________________________________

  • Bumbay sina Vimal.  (à Vimal (and implied ‘others’) are not Indian.)

      ___________________________________________________________

  • Mananayaw ang bata.   (à  The children are not dancers. )

      ___________________________________________________________

  • Estudyante sa Stanford ang kapatid ko.   (à My brother/sister is not a   student at Stanford.)

      ____________________________________________________________
      6.        Muslim si Achmed.      (à Achmed is not Muslim)
      _____________________________________________________________
      7.        Malayo ang Shoe Mart.     (à  Shoe Mart is far.)
      ____________________________________________________________
      8.        Maganda ito. (à This is not beautiful.)
      ____________________________________________________________
      9.      Taksi iyon.      (à That is not a taxi.)
      ____________________________________________________________
      10.      Dalaga ako. (à I am single)
      ____________________________________________________________

    • AFFIRMATIVE AND NEGATIVE SENTENCES 

 

“Oo” means “Yes.”  In respectful speech, “Yes” is “Opo”  or “Oho”
“Hindi” means “No.”  In respectful speech, “No” is “Hindi po” or “Hindi ho.”

      A  Sagutin ang mga sumusunod na gamit ang, “Oo”

1. Sekretarya ba si Sally?  ________________________________________

2. Matalino ba si David? __________________________________________

3. Binata ba sina Raffy? __________________________________________

4. Muslim ba ang mga babae? ______________________________________

5. Babae ba ang presidente? ________________________________________

      B.  Sagutin ang mga sumusunod na gamit ang, “Hindi”

1. Negosyante ba si Sally?      _____________________________________

2. Dalaga ba ang babae?             ______________________________________

3. Budista ba ang mga Tsino? ______________________________________

4. Empleyado ba sina Marc? _______________________________________

5. Hapon ba ang mga lalaki? _______________________________________

 

     C.  Follow the model and translate the sentences in italics into Filipino.

            1. Katoliko ba si Mary?      Oo. Katoliko si Mary.     Yes. Mary is Catholic.

            2. __Budista ba sina Lily at Glen?    Are Lily and Glen Buddhists?
                Oo. Budista sina Lily at Glen.

            3. Binata ba si David?
                _________________________________________.
                Yes. David  is a bachelor.
    
            4. Mekaniko ba sina Chris?

       _________________________________________
       Yes. Chris (and implied others) are mechanics.

      5 _________________________________?. Is the woman German?
       Hindi.   Hindi Aleman ang babae.

6. Estudyante ba ang lalaki. Is the man a student?

 __________________________________. No. The man is not a student.

7. Turista ba sina John?

    __________________________.  No. John (and implied others) are not tourists.

8. Bumbay ba sina Bac Tran?

   ___________________________________. No. Bac Tran (and implied  others) are not Indian.

 

 

    • TAG QUESTIONS

Tag questions are questions added at the end of a sentence to ask for affirmation.  Examples are: isn’t it, aren’t they, didn’t you? right?) In Filipino, each of these are expressed by “hindi ba?”  or its contracted form “’di ba?”

  • Isalin ang mga sumusunod na pangungusap sa Filipino.

 

            Laguna is beautiful, isn’t it?            ___Maganda ang Laguna, di ba?_________

    • Mr. Smith is American, isn’t he? ___________________________________________
    • Isabel is protestant, isn’t she? ______________________________________________
    • Martin and Marc are professors, aren’t they? __________________________________
    • They are businesswomen, aren’t they? _______________________________________
    • The teacher is a lawyer, isn’t she? __________________________________________
    • He is unmarried, isn’t he?_________________________________________________
    • They are businesswomen, aren’t they?_______________________________________
    • Florence is a nurse, isn’t she?______________________________________________
    • You (plural) are Filipino, aren’t you?   _______________________________________

 

VI  The Subject Pronoun in an Affirmative sentence.

     A.  The Subject Pronoun “AKO” (I) in an affirmative statement:
                        Give the English equivalent:

    1. Mabait ako.             (I am kind.)
    2. Pranses ako.             (I am French.)
    3. May asawa ako.             (I am married. )
    4. Pogi ako.            (I am handsome!)
    5. Katoliko ako.            ( I am a Catholic. )

      Give the Filipino equivalent”

    1. I am a teacher            (Guro ako.)
    2. I am Jewish.            (Hudyo ako.)
    3. I am married.             (May asawa ako.)
    4. I am single.            (Binata ako.  [or] Dalaga ako.)
    5. I am Mexican.            (Mehikano ako.)

 

Write 5 affirmative statements about yourself.

1._______________________________________________________
2._______________________________________________________
3._______________________________________________________
4._______________________________________________________
5._______________________________________________________

    B.  The Subject Pronoun “KA” (YOU) in an Interrogative Statement

1. Estudyante ka ba?

2. Pranses ka ba?

3. May asawa ka ba?

4. Pilipino ka ba?

5. Katoliko ka ba?

 

            Ask a new classmate 5  things about himself or herself:

            1._____________________________________________________
            2._____________________________________________________
            3._____________________________________________________
            4._____________________________________________________
            5._____________________________________________________

    C.  The Subject Pronoun “KAYO” (YOU respect form) in an Interrogative Statement:

Note:  When two monosyllabic particles co-occur in a sentence, such as “po” and “ba”, the respect particle “po” (or “ho”) preceeds the question particle “ba.”  Thus: ‘po ba,’  ‘ka ba,’ and  ‘po ba kayo.’

 

            Transform the following question into respectful speech.
            Halimbawa:  Ilokano ka ba?     Ilokano po ba kayo?

  • Estudyante ka ba?  _______________________________________
  • Pranses ka ba? ___________________________________________
  • May asawa ka ba? ________________________________________
  • Pilipino ka ba? __________________________________________­
  • Katoliko ka ba? __________________________________________
  • Nars ka ba? _____________________________________________
  • Pulis ka ba sa Maynila?_____________________________________
  • Protestante ka ba?_________________________________________
  • Arkitekto ka ba?__________________________________________
  • Binata ka ba?_____________________________________________

     D.  The Subject Pronoun in a Negative statement

When a pronoun is present in the negated phrase, the pronoun immediately follows the negative word.  The typical word order in the positive is:  Predicate + subject pronoun.  In the Negative:  Hindi (subject pronoun)  + predicate.

             Transform these sentences into the negative form:
 Mayaman siya.                    Hindi siya mayaman.             He/She is not rich.

1.  Mayaman tayo.            _______________________ We are not rich. (we, incl)

2. Italyano sila.                  __________________________ They are not Italian.

3. Binata siya.                  ___________________________He is not a bachelor.

4. Pogi siya.                  ___________________________He is not handsome.

5. Protestante ako.             ___________________________ I am not a Protestant.

6.  Kastila  tayo.                 ___________________________ We are not Spanish.

7.  Muslim kami.              ______________________We are not Muslim. (we, excl.)

8.  Tamad kayo.                 ________________________You are not lazy.  (you, pl.)

9.  Manggagamot ako.              __________________________ I am not a doctor.

10. Amerikano ka.            __________________________You are not American.

 

      E.  The Interrogative sentence

A monosyllabic pronoun or particle such as  ka  or   po  preceeds the question marker ba
Thus: ‘ka ba?’ and ‘po ba?’  However, with kayo, other two-syllable pronouns or a noun  phrase), the sequence is:  ‘po ba + kayo,’ ‘po ba sila/siya/ako/tayo/kami/kayo…’ and ‘(Pilipino) po ba ang tsuper?’

 

Insert ba in the following questions to complete the interrogative sentence:

1. Taga-rito ka?   (ka ba)

2. Taga-L.A. siya?    (ba siya)

3. Abogada po si Jennifer?   (po ba)

4. Estudyante si Pete?    (ba si Pete)

5.  Dr. Galang, taga-Baguio po kayo?     po ba kayo)

6.  Taga-Hawaii ka?  (ka ba)

7. Mga estudyante kayo sa City College?  (ba kayo)

8.  Taga-San Diego po sina Sally at Ed.  (po ba sina Sally at Ed)

9.  Manilenyo ang mga Piedad.  (ba ang mga Piedad)

10.  Pintor po si Amorsolo.  (po ba )

      F.  The Interrogative sentence  “Taga-saan ka?…”  Where are you from?

 

To respond to the question Taga-saan,  replace “saan” with the location which usually a proper name denoting a place of origin.

            Respond or formulate a question as cued by the word/s in italics:

 Taga-saan ka? Where are you from?      >            Taga-Amerika ako. From the U.S.
 Taga-saan si Nonoy? Where is Nonoy from?  >            Taga-Cebu siya. From Cebu.

  • Taga-saan kayo? (from California)__________________________________________
  • Taga-saan ang pari [priest]? (from Bulacan) __________________________________
  • Taga-saan sila? (from Hollywood) __________________________________________
  • Taga-saan kami? ( from rito = here)________________________________________
  • Taga-saan ang mga lola mo?  (from Laguna)__________________________________
  • Taga-rito ka ba? (Yes, from here) ___________________________________________

 

Now, formulate the questions to your friend Bert’s responses:

7.   Ikaw: ____________________________________? Where is Malia from?
     Bert:   Taga-Honolulu siya.

8. Ikaw:__________________________________? Where are the students from?
      Bert:  Taga-San Francisco sila.

9.  Ikaw:________________________________? Where are the teachers from?
      Bert:  Taga-Maynila sila.

10  .Ikaw:____________________________ ?  Where are Ben and Jerry from?
      Bert:   Taga-New York sila.

 

GAWAIN  A: Pasulat Review the Pag-uusap or Dialog and write three statements about Malou and three statements about Lita in the affirmative.

GAWAIN B:  Pasulat: Next, write three statements in the negative about Malou, and three statements in the negative about Lita.  That is, say three things that Malou is not, which Lita is, and vice versa.

GAWAIN C : Pasalita:  Prepare five questions to ask a classmate which will elicit positive and negative responses.  Write down his/her responses, then introduce and present your classmate to another pair of students. Note: You will be using the third person “siya” “hindi siya” when talking about your classmate.