Like MAG- verbs, UM verbs are actor focus verbs. Actor-focus verbs mark the actor as the subject by placing an ang marker before the actor or by using the ang pronoun for its subject
Unlike MAG- which is simply prefixed to the verb root, -UM- is infixed and prefixed, depending on whether the verb root begins with a vowel or a consonant. It either case, -UM- precedes the first vowel of the root:. Here is an example of a consonant-initial verb root [KANTA] that takes the affix –UM- to form the infinitive (to sing).
CONSONANT-INITIAL VERB ROOT:
ROOT > kanta (sing)
First vowel: k A nta
UM preceeding it: kUMA nta
Thus: kumanta (to sing)
Completed: kumanta here, action has begun - therefore um is affixed; and action has ended therefore, no duplication of 1st syllable of root occurs
Incompleted : kumakanta here, action has begun – um is affixed; and action has not ended - duplicated 1st syllable occurs
Contemplated: kakanta here, action has not begun – um is absent; and action has not ended - duplicated 1st syllable occurs
Root Word: Sayaw (dance)
Infinitive: _______________(to dance)
Completed: ______________ Action begun: um is affixed; Action ended – no duplication of 1st syllable
Incompleted : _______________ Action begun: um is affixed; Action not ended - duplicated 1st syllable
Contemplated: ______________ Action not begun: um is absent; Action not ended - duplicated 1st syllable
Root word: Liko (turn)
Infinitive: _____________________ (to turn)
Completed: ___________________ (turned)
Incompleted: __________________ (turning)
Contemplated: _________________ (will turn)
Root word: kanan (right)
Infinitive:____________________(to turn right)
Completed: ___________________ (turned right)
Incompleted: __________________ (turning right)
Contemplated: _________________ (will turn right)
Root word: hinto (stop)
Completed: ___________________ (stopped)
Incompleted: __________________ (stopping)
Contemplated: _________________ (will stop)
Root word: hanap (look for, search)
Infinitive:____________________(to look for)
Completed: ___________________ (looked for)
Incompleted: __________________ (looking for)
Contemplated: _________________ (looked for)
Learn the following verbs in the infinitive form and write their roots on the blanks.
1. Bumangon To rise or get up ____bangon__
2. Kumain To eat ____________
3. Gumising To wake up ____________
4. Humiga To lie down ____________
7. Lumakad To walk ____________
8. Lumipad Flight To fly _____________
9. Lumuhod To kneel _____________
10. Lumusot To pass _____________
11. Ngumiti Smile To smile _____________
12. Sumigaw Shout To shout _____________
15. Tumalon To jump _____________
16. Tumakbo To run _____________
17. Tumawa To laugh _____________
18. Tumayo To stand up _____________
Give the root word of and the meaning of the following verbs pertaining to natural phenomena:
Bumaha -To flood __flood:_ baha’______
Bumagyo -To storm ______ __________
Kumidlat -To flash, as lightning ______ __________
Kumulog -To thunder ______ __________
Humangin -To blow, as wind ______ __________
Lumindol - To quake ______ __________
Umalon –To undulate ______ __________
Umambon To drizzle ______ __________
Umaraw To become sunny ______ __________
Umulan To rain ______ __________
VOWEL-INITIAL VERB ROOT: The affix UM is placed before the first vowel of the root. Affixation is similarly formed as with consonant initial verb roots. Kanta and Inom, Kumanta and Uminom, Kumakanta and Umiinom, Kakanta and iinom share the same affixation and duplication processes for all three aspects.
ROOT: Inom (drink)
First vowel: I _ _ _
UM preceeding it: UM I _ _ _
Thus: uminom (to drink)
Root Word: Iyak (cry)
Completed: Umiyak Action begun – um is affixed; Action ended – no duplication
Incompleted : Umiiyak Action begun – um is affixed; Action not ended - duplicated 1st syllable
Contemplated: Iiyak Action not begun – um is absent; Action not ended - duplicated 1st syllable
Root word: Upo (sit)
Infinitive: _____________________ (to sit)
Completed: ___________________ (sat)
Incompleted: __________________ (sitting)
Contemplated: _________________ (will seat)
Umiiyak ang sanggol. The baby is crying.
Umiiyak ang mga sanggol. The babies are crying.
Umiiyak siya. He is crying.
Umiiyak sila. They are crying.
Umiyak ang sanggol kagabi. The baby cried last night.
Kagabi, umiyak ang sanggol.
Umiyak ang mga sanggol kahapon. The babies cried yesterday.
Kahapon, umiyak ang mga sanggol.
Umiyak siya kahapon. She cried yesterday.
Kahapon umiyak siya.
Iiyak ang sanggol. The baby will cry.
Iiyak ang mga sanggol. The babies will cry.
Iiyak siya. She will cry.
Iiyak sila. They will cry.
Isalin ang mga sumusunod na salita at pangungusap sa Filipino.
An Actor Focus verb marks the actor with ANG and the location with SA. If the location gives reference to a person by name, the person’s name is preceded or marked by kay (singular) or kina (plural) kay Jess, kina Ben at Jerry.
Actor-focus Verb + [ANG] Actor + [SA] prepositional phrase
Root Word: Kain (eat)
Infinitive: Kumain (to eat)
1. Maria ate at our house.
2. Maria and her friend will eat at our house.
3. The driver ate at our house.
4. He is eating in the car.
5. The tourists will eat in the bus
6.The tourists will visit Oprah Winfrey.
Ed….Below is supposed to be a chart with lines for the columns (no horizontal lines for rows)
Verb + Actor + (Direct Object) + (Prepositional Phrase)
1 2 3 4
Actor-focus Verb + [ANG] Actor + [NG] direct object + [SA] prepositional phrase
Tumawag ang ng sa
Tumatawag si / sina kay / kina
Tatawag ako / kami~tayo
ka / kayo
siya / sila
Ed, The answer will appear on the blanks when you click them
Fill in the missing element:
- Kumakain si Mike _ng___ pagkaing Bumbay. Mike eats Indian food.
- Bumibili __sina____Mike ng gulay. Mike and others are eating vegetables.
- Tumatawag __siya__ ng taksi. He is calling a cab.
- Susulat _sila____ng tula. They are writing a poem.
- Pumunta _ang kartero ____Dr. Ramos. The mailman went to Dr. Ramos.
- Kumain _si____ Mike __ng___ pansit kanina. Mike ate noodles earlier.
- Bukas__si___ si Mike__sa__ doctor niya. Tomorrow Mike will call his doctor.
- Kumuha __ang__ mga bata _ng___kendi ___kina___Ginoo at Ginang Wonka. The children got candy from Mr and Mrs Wonka.
- Kumain __sina____Mike ng gulay kagabi. Mike and others ate vegetables last night.
- Bibisita __ang___mga guro _sa___mga museo. The teachers will visit the museums.