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제 17 과
대통령 선거

문형과 문법
( Patterns and Grammar Notes )




N. + 에 관해(서)/관하여

=> "about," "concerning"


N. + 에 관한
=> "about," "on"

The adverbial phrase -에 관해(서) or the alternative form -에 관하여 is followed by a verbal clause. The noun modifier -에 관한 is followed by a noun or a noun phrase.


  • 졸업한 후 무엇을 할 지, 장래에 관해서 생각해 봤어요? 
    => Have you thought about what you are going to do after the graduation?
  • 미국 정치에 관해 공부하고 있어요. 
    => I am studying about Korean culture.
  • 한국의 역사에 관해서 논문을 쓰고 있어요. 
    => I am writing a paper on Korean history.


  • 한국의 문화에 관한 논문을 쓰고 있어요. 
    => I am writing about Korean culture.
  • 친구에 관한 문제로 의논하고 싶어. 
    => I'd like to talk about my friend.
  • 그 담배에 관한 책을 찾아봐야지. 
    => I'd better look for a book on cigarettes.

2.  Verbs with 가다 and 오다
V. + (어/아) 오다
=> "to do . . . and bring"

V. + (어/아) 가다

=> "to do . . . and take," "to progress/go . . . (ADV.)"

-어/아 오다 and -어/아 가다 are useful helping verbs to indicate the direction of the main verb. There is no one-word verb for "to take" or "to bring" in Korean, but their equivalent expressions are 가져 가다 "to have and go" and 가져 오다 "to have and come." Similarly, Korean has 사 오다 for "to buy and bring," 캐 오다 for "to dig up and bring," and so on. (See the helping verbs chart in L14, GN7.)

잘 해 오다 to do well and bring 잘 해 가다  to make well and take
요약해 오다  to summarize and bring  세계적 to summarize and bring
가져 오다  to bring, to fetch  가져 가다  to take away
사 오다 to buy and bring  사 가다 to buy and take
물어 오다 to bring by mouth 
(of dog, cat, and so on)
물어 가다 to carry away by mouth
알아 오다 to bring back findings 알아 가다 to take back findings 
집어 오다  to pick up and bring 집어 가다 to pick up by hand and take away
씻어 오다  to wash and bring  씻어 가다 to wash and take away
싸 오다  to bring wrapped 싸 가다 to take wrapped 
찾아 오다 to come to visit  찾아 가다  to go to visit
끌어 오다 to bring by dragging  끌어 가다 to drag away
For some verbs, -어/아 가다 indicates that the action or event is "progressing (well/slowly/fast)," as in 잘 되어 간다 "it is going well" or "it is coming to (an end)," and as in 일이 끝나 간다 "the job is coming to an end." 

3. Causative suffixes 이, 히, 리, 기, 우, 구, and 추

These are suffixes to "cause" or "make" the actions happen; they turn certain verbs into causative verbs. Other ways to make the actions happen, although the meanings may differ, are to use -게 하다 "make (someone) do . . ." for all verbs, as shown in L25, GN2, and -시키다 for some verbs, as shown in L22, GN6

  • 대통령에게 나라를 맡긴다. 
    => The president is entrusted with the nation.
  • 학생에게 책을 읽혔다. 
    => (I) made the students read books.
  • 부모님이 재산을 늘리셨다. 
    => My parents increased their assets.
  • 동생에게 심부름을 시켰다. 
    => (I) sent my little brother on an errand. 

There are approximately 132 verbs that can be made into a causative verb using the suffixes 이, 히, 리, 기, 우, and 추. The 40 most common of these verbs are listed in the causative verbs chart in item 7 below. (Note that the suffixes 이, 히, 리, and 기 are also passive suffixes, as described in L15, GN4). 

4.  A.V. + 기에(는)
=> "as," "as for"

보다, 듣다, 알다, and 생각하다 are frequently used verbs in this construction. It expresses the speaker's experience or opinion. 

  • 제가 보기에는 이 책은 학생들에게 좋은 것 같아요. 
    => In my view, this book seems to be good for the students.
  • 어머니께서 듣기에는 진씨의 건강이 좋아졌대요. 
    => As my mother understands it, Mr. Chin's health has gotten better. 
  • 제가 알기에는 내년부터는 대학 시험이 없어진다고 합니다. 
    => As far as I know, there will be no college entrance exam, beginning next year.
  • 제가 생각하기에는 대통령의 계획을 따르는 것이 좋겠어요. 
    => In my opinion, it will be good to go along withthe president's plan.

5.  A.V. + 는 동안(에)
=> "while," "during," "when"

This construction indicates a duration of time in which an action or an event occurs.

  • 한국에서 사는 동안 친구를 많이 사귀었어요. 
    => I made many friends while I was living in Korea.
  • 기다리시는 동안 이 잡지를 읽으시겠어요? 
    => Would you like to read this magazine while you wait?
  • 내가 자는 동안에 눈이 많이 내렸어. 
    => While I was sleeping, a heavy snow fell. 
  • 내가 학교에 간 동안에 친구가 왔었다. 
    => While I was at school, a friend of mine came.

6.  a.  V. + ㄴ/은/는 대신(에)
=> "in place of," "instead of," "but"


N. + 대신(에) 
=> "instead of," "as a replacement"

대신 literally means "substitution," "proxy," or "surrogate," but it also means "in exchange for" or "as a trade-off," as shown in these examples: 


  • 그 물건은 비싼 대신 튼튼해요. 
    => That item is expensive but sturdy. 
  • 날씨가 맑은 대신 추워요. 
    => The weather is beautiful, but it's cold.
  • 전화를 거는 대신 편지를 쓰기로 했다. 
    => Instead of calling, I will write a letter.


  • 회의에 저 대신 좀 가 주시겠어요? 
    => Would you mind going to the meeting in my place? 
  • 선물로 책 대신 스카프를 샀어. 
    => As a gift, I bought a scarf instead of a book.
  • 친구에게 전화 대신 편지를 했어요. 
    => I wrote my friend a letter rather than calling him.

7.  Causative verbs chart

Suffix Verb Base Causative Verb Example and Gloss
먹다 먹이다  저는 8 시에 아기에게 우유를 먹여요.
to eat to feed I feed my baby milk at eight o'clock.
보다  보이다  안내하는 직원에게 신분증을 보이세요.
to see to show Please show the attendant your ID.
죽다  죽이다  개미도 죽이지 마세요.
to die to kill Please don't kill even an ant.
속다  속이다  사람들을 언제나 속일 수 없어요.
to be cheated to cheat, to fool You can't fool the people all the time.
줄다  줄이다  바지를 줄여야 해요.
to shrink, to decrease to shrink, to reduce I have to shorten a pair of pants.
높다  높이다  저 건물을 더 높인대요?
to be high to raise, to make tall  Are they going to make the building higher?
녹다  녹이다  눈을 녹여서 물을 썼어요.
to melt to melt  I melted the snow to use as water.
읽다  읽히다  선생님께서 저에게 책을 읽히셨어요.
to read to make read My teacher has me read the book.
앉다  앉히다  그 의자에 아기를 혼자 앉히지 마세요.
to sit down to seat Please don't let the baby sit on the chair alone.
입다  입히다  아침에 동생에게 코트를 입혀 줬어요.
to put on (clothes) to dress, to put on (someone) I put the coat on my little sister in the morning.
넓다  넓히다  이 길은 넓혀야 해요.
to be wide to widen This road has to be widened.
익다  익히다  야채는 너무 익히면 맛이 없어요. 
to be cooked, to become ripe to cook, to make done/ripe Vegetables do not taste good when overcooked.
식다  식히다  너무 뜨거우면 식히세요.
to cool off  to cool it off  If it is too hot, please cool it off.
알다  알리다  도착시간을 알려 주세요.
to know  to let be known Please let me know the arrival time.
울다  울리다  그 영화가 사람들을 울렸어요.
to cry, to weep to make (someone) cry The movie made people weep.
살다  살리다  저 개가 어린이를 살렸어요.
to live to make one live, to save The dog saved a child.
돌다  돌리다  문을 열려면 핸들을 돌리세요.
to go around  to turn To open the door, turn the handle.
늘다  늘리다  수출을 십퍼센트 늘렸다.
to increase to increase We increased exports by 10 percent.
웃다  웃기다  그 분은 사람들을 잘 웃겨요.
to laugh to make laugh He makes people laugh a lot.
맡다  맡기다  누구에게 이 책임을 맡길까요?
to keep to entrust, to check To whom shall I give this responsibility?
벗다  벗기다  제가 아기 신발을 벗겼어요.
to take off  to undress, to strip I took off the baby's shoes.
신다  신기다  아기 신발을 다시 신길까요?
to put on (shoes) to put on (shoes) Shall I put the shoes back on the baby?
숨다  숨기다  나는 너에게 숨기는 것이 없어.
to hide to hide, to conceal I have nothing to hide from you. 
씻다  씻기다  도로가 비에 깨끗이 씻기었다.
to wash to let wash The road was washed clean by the rain.
빗다  빗기다  머리를 빗겨 줄까?
to comb to comb Shall I comb your hair?
자다  재우다  엄마가 아기를 재우고 있어요.
to sleep to put to bed Mother is putting the baby to sleep.
깨다  깨우다  아침 7 시에 좀 깨워 주세요.
to be awake to wake Would you wake me up at 7:00 a.m.?
타다  태우다  엄마가 아이를 학교 버스에 태웠어요.
to get on, to ride to load, to put on (a vehicle) Mother put her child on the school bus.
서다  세우다  차를 기차역 앞에서 세워주세요.
to stand, to stop to stop, to erect Please stop the car in front of the train station.
비다  비우다  쓰레기통을 좀 비워 주시겠어요?
to be empty/vacant to vacate, to empty Would you empty the wastebasket?
돋다  돋구다  운동은 밥맛을 돋구어 준다.
to rise, to sprout to enhance Exercise enhances one's appetite.





낮다  낮추다  음악을 낮추어 주시겠어요?
to be low to lower Would you lower the volume of the music?
늦다  늦추다  한 달은 너무 짧으니 기간을 좀 늦춥시다.
to be late to extend, to defer One month is too short; let's extend it.
맞다  맞추다  몸에 맞추어 옷을 맡겼어요.
to fit, to be correct  to set, to match I ordered a dress made to fit (my body).

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